Evidence-based health and well-being for entire populations.

Tobacco Cessation

Pro-Change’s Tobacco Cessation program assists smokers in all stages of quitting and helps those who have quit to stay smoke-free.

Fifteen percent of U.S. adults smoke. Most of those smokers want to quit; they’re just not ready.

Multiple studies have found TTM based individualized interventions for smoking cessation to produce long-term abstinence rates within the range of 22 – 26%. Those interventions have also consistently outperformed alternative interventions including action-oriented self-help programs1, non-interactive manual-based programs2, and other common interventions.3 These interventions continued to move smokers to abstinence even after the studies concluded. For a summary of smoking cessation clinical outcomes, see Velicer et al., 2007.4

The Tobacco Cessation program, available in English and Spanish, is a two-part, self-administered program that includes:

  • Online computer tailored intervention (CTI) with questions and feedback tailored to each individual’s needs
  • Dynamic web activities matched to the individual’s readiness to change (e.g., stories and suggestions from people who quit; cost and savings calculators; a nicotine dependency survey and feedback; a timeline to better health and much more.

Fully tailored text messaging is available. In a recent trial, the addition of tailored text messaging increased the effectiveness of our best practices by nearly 15 percentage points to 40.3%. In addition, the text messages increased engagement with the program, and qualitative feedback regarding the text message portion of the program has been overwhelmingly positive.

Online Program

We have self-directed and coaching versions of our online Tobacco Cessation program.
Smoking PAC screenshot
Fully tailored text messaging is available.

Youth Tobacco Cessation

We have a tobacco cessation program specifically for youth built on the same Transtheoretical Model principals as the adult program.


In a recent trial, the addition of tailored text messaging increased the effectiveness of our best practices by nearly fifteen percentage points. In addition, the text messages increased engagement with the program.

(Sample = 446)
At 3-month follow-up:

  • 25.7% successfully quit smoking
  • 40.3% successfully quit smoking when the program was augmented with tailored text messaging

(Jordan & Evers)

(Sample = 224 in inpatient psychiatry unit)
At 18-month follow-up:

  • 20% successfully quit smoking

(Prochaska et al., 2014, Hickman, et al, 2015)

Previous Studies

  • Long-Term abstinence rates of 22% – 26% have been found for interventions tailored on the 14 TTM variables for smoking cessation

(Prochaska et al., 1993, 2001a; Velicer et al., 1995, 2007)

Publications Cited

1.Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., Velicer, W.F., and Rossi, J.S. (1993) Standardized, individualized, interactive and personalized self-help programs for smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 12, 299-405.
2.Velicer, W.F. and Prochaska, J.O. (1999). An expert system for smoking cessation. Patient Education and Counseling, 36, 119-129.
3.Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Rossi, J.S. and Tsoh, J.Y. (2001b). Evaluating a population-based recruitment approach and a stage-based expert system intervention for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 583-602.
4.Velicer, W.F., Sun, X., Redding, C.A., and Prochaska, J.O. (2007). Demographic variables, smoking variables, and outcomes across five studies. Health Psychology, 26, 278-287.

Other Publications

Jordan, P.J., Lid, V., Evers, K.E.(2012) Cell phone-enhanced expert systems to promote smoking cessation in Veterans [Abstract].  Telemedicine and e-Health, 18, A-28.
Prochaska, J.J., Hall, S., Delucchi, K., & Hall, S.M. (2014). Efficacy of initiating tobacco dependence treatment in inpatient psychiatry: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 1557-1565.
Hickman, N.J., Delucchi, K.L., & Prochaska, J.J. (2015). Treating tobacco dependence at the intersection of diversity, poverty, and mental illness: A randomized feasibility and replication trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 17, 1012-1021.
Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Ruggiero, L., Laforge, R.G., Rossi, J.S. et al. (2001a). Counselor and stimulus control enhancements of a stage-matched expert system intervention for smokers in a managed care setting. Preventive Medicine, 32, 23-32.
Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Prochaska, J.0., Abrams, D.B., Emmons, K.M., & Pierce, J. (1995). Distribution of smokers by stage in three representative samples. Preventive Medicine, 24, 401-411.