Evidence-based health and well-being for entire populations.

Smoking Cessation

Pro-Change’s Smoking Cessation program assists smokers in all stages of quitting and helps those who have quit to stay smoke-free.

Fifteen percent of U.S. adults smoke. Most of those smokers want to quit; they’re just not ready.

Multiple studies have found TTM based individualized interventions for smoking cessation to produce long-term abstinence rates within the range of 22 – 26%. Those interventions have also consistently outperformed alternative interventions including action-oriented self-help programs1, non-interactive manual-based programs2, and other common interventions.3 These interventions continued to move smokers to abstinence even after the studies concluded. For a summary of smoking cessation clinical outcomes, see Velicer et al., 2007.4

The Smoking Cessation Program, available in English and Spanish, is a two-part, self-administered program that includes:

  • Online computer tailored intervention (CTI) with questions and feedback tailored to each individual’s needs
  • Dynamic web activities matched to the individual’s readiness to change (e.g., stories and suggestions from people who quit; cost and savings calculators; a nicotine dependency survey and feedback; a timeline to better health and much more.

Fully tailored text messaging is available. In a recent trial, the addition of tailored text messaging increased the effectiveness of our best practices by nearly 15 percentage points to 40.3%. In addition, the text messages increased engagement with the program, and qualitative feedback regarding the text message portion of the program has been overwhelmingly positive.

Online Program

We have self-directed and coaching versions of our online Smoking Cessation program.


Fully tailored text messaging is available.

Youth Tobacco Cessation

We have a tobacco cessation program specifically for youth built on the same Transtheoretical Model principals as the adult program.


In a recent trial, the addition of tailored text messaging increased the effectiveness of our best practices by eleven percentage points. In addition, the text messages increased engagement with the program.

(Sample = 446)
At 3-month follow-up:

  • 25.7% successfully quit smoking
  • 40.3% successfully quit smoking when the program was augmented with tailored text messaging

(Jordan & Evers)

(Sample = 224 in inpatient psychiatry unit)
At 18-month follow-up:

  • 20% successfully quit smoking

(Prochaska et al., 2014, Hickman, et al, 2015)

Previous Studies

  • Long-Term abstinence rates of 22% – 26% have been found for interventions tailored on the 14 TTM variables for smoking cessation

(Prochaska et al., 1993, 2001a; Velicer et al., 1995, 2007)

Publications Cited

1.Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., Velicer, W.F., and Rossi, J.S. (1993) Standardized, individualized, interactive and personalized self-help programs for smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 12, 299-405.
2.Velicer, W.F. and Prochaska, J.O. (1999). An expert system for smoking cessation. Patient Education and Counseling, 36, 119-129.
3.Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Rossi, J.S. and Tsoh, J.Y. (2001b). Evaluating a population-based recruitment approach and a stage-based expert system intervention for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 583-602.
4.Velicer, W.F., Sun, X., Redding, C.A., and Prochaska, J.O. (2007). Demographic variables, smoking variables, and outcomes across five studies. Health Psychology, 26, 278-287.

Other Publications

Jordan, P.J., Lid, V., Evers, K.E.(2012) Cell phone-enhanced expert systems to promote smoking cessation in Veterans [Abstract].  Telemedicine and e-Health, 18, A-28.
Prochaska, J.J., Hall, S., Delucchi, K., & Hall, S.M. (2014). Efficacy of initiating tobacco dependence treatment in inpatient psychiatry: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 1557-1565.
Hickman, N.J., Delucchi, K.L., & Prochaska, J.J. (2015). Treating tobacco dependence at the intersection of diversity, poverty, and mental illness: A randomized feasibility and replication trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 17, 1012-1021.
Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Ruggiero, L., Laforge, R.G., Rossi, J.S. et al. (2001a). Counselor and stimulus control enhancements of a stage-matched expert system intervention for smokers in a managed care setting. Preventive Medicine, 32, 23-32.
Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Prochaska, J.0., Abrams, D.B., Emmons, K.M., & Pierce, J. (1995). Distribution of smokers by stage in three representative samples. Preventive Medicine, 24, 401-411.
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