Evidence-based health and well-being for entire populations.

Behavior Change Program Outcomes

Pro-Change’s evidence-based program outcomes are from randomized clinical trials, predominantly funded by the National Institutes of Health. The outcomes measure behavior change from baseline to follow-up among participants who were not engaging in the healthy behavior at baseline.

The trials were performed with scientific rigor with results published in peer-reviewed journals such as the American Journal of Health Promotion, Preventive Medicine, Health Psychology, American Journal of Public Health, and Disease Management.

For all outcomes reported, the intervention group statistically outperformed the control group.

LifeStyle Management Suite Program Outcomes

Stress Management

Study 1 (sample = 1085)
At 18-month follow-up:

  • 62% were effectively managing their stress

(Evers et al., 2006)

Study 2 (sample = 967)
At 6-month follow-up:

  • 74% were effectively managing their stress

(Prochaska et al., 2008)

Study 3 (sample = 1864)
At 6-month follow-up:

  • 65% were effectively managing their stress

(Prochaska et al., 2012)

Weight Management

Study 1 (sample = 1277)
At 24-month follow-up:

  • National guidelines were reached for healthy eating (48%), regular exercise (45%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (49%)
  • 50% were effectively managing emotional distress without eating
  • 30% lost 5% or more of their body weight

(Johnson et al., 2008)

Depression Prevention

Study 1 (sample = 350)
At 9-month follow-up:

  • 73% were consistently using effective strategies to prevent depression
  • 73% experienced a reduction in symptoms of depression
  • 35% experienced a reliable and clinically significant reduction in symptoms of depression

(Levesque et al., 2011)


Study 1 (sample = 967)
At 6-month follow-up:

  • 45% were meeting national guidelines for regular exercise

(Prochaska et al., 2008)

Study 2 (sample = 1890)
At 6-month follow-up:

  • 57% were meeting national guidelines for regular exercise when the program was delivered by coaches

(Prochaska et al., 2012)

Smoking Cessation

Study 1 (sample = 224 in inpatient psychiatry unit)
At 18-month follow-up:

  • 20% successfully quit smoking

(Prochaska et al., 2013)

Study 2 (sample = 446)

At 3-month follow-up:

  • 25.7% successfully quit smoking
  • 40.3% successfully quit smoking when the program was augmented with tailored text messages

Adherence to Antihypertensive Medication

Study 1 (sample = 1227)
At 12-month follow-up:

  • 73% were adhering to their prescribed medication regimen

(Johnson et al., 2006b)

Adherence to Lipid-Lowering Medication

Study 1 (sample = 404)
At 18-month follow-up:

  • 56% began adhering to their prescribed medication regimen
  • 85% of those consistently taking their medication at baseline did not discontinue the medication
  • National guidelines were reached for regular exercise (43%) and healthy eating (25%) through minimal stage-targeted feedback

(Johnson et al., 2006a)

Specialized Behavior Change Program Outcomes

For Adults

Domestic Violence

Study 1 (sample = 500)
At 5-month follow-up:
37% (treatment) vs. 12% (control) moved to the action stage
At 6-month follow-up, based on victim reports:

  • Rates of threats were 40% vs. 88%
  • Physical violence were 20% vs. 88%

(Levesque et al., 2012)

Pregnancy Health

Coming soon…

Responsible Drinking

Coming soon…

For College Students

liveWell: A Healthy Foundation for Life

Study 1 (sample = 1841)
At 3-month follow-up:

  • 64% were consuming 4 1/2 cups of fruit and vegetables per day
  • 93% continued to manage their stress
  • 61% had adopted regular exercise

At 6-month follow-up:

  • 47% who were previously “struggling” or “suffering” were “thriving”

For Youth

Multiple-Behavior Energy Balance

Study 1 (sample = 1800)
At 2-month follow-up: •

  • 28.5% were exercising 60 minutes or more for at least 5 days per week
  • 35.5% were consuming at least 5 servings of fruit and vegetables s per day
  • 43% were watching 2 hours or less of TV each day

(Mauriello et al., 2010)

Study 2 (sample =4158)
At 36-month follow-up:
  • 49% were exercising 60 minutes or more for at least 5 days per week
  • 25% were consuming at least 5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day
  • 48% were watching 2 hours or less of TV each day

(Velicer et al., 2013)

Juvenile Justice

Study 1 (sample = 60) 

In a feasibility study involving 60 system-involved youths and their probation officers or counselors

  • 92% of youths agreed that the program could help them make positive changes
  • 87% agreed that the program could give their probation officer or counselor helpful information about them (Levesque et al., 2012)

Study 2 (sample = 700)

Randomized controlled trial involving 54 probation officers and 700 moderate- and high-risk juvenile offenders is currently in progress.


Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.O., Johnson, J.L., Mauriello, L.M., Padula, J.A., & Prochaska, J.M. (2006). A randomized clinical trial of a population- and transtheoretical model-based stress management intervention. Health Psychology, 25, 521-529.

Johnson, S.S., Driskell, M.M., Johnson, J.L., Dyment, S.J., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M. et al. (2006a). Transtheoretical model intervention for adherence to lipid-lowering drugs. Disease Management, 9, 102-114.

Johnson, S.S., Driskell, M.M., Johnson, J.L., Prochaska, J.M., Zwick, W., & Prochaska, J.O. (2006b). Efficacy of a transtheoretical model-based expert system for antihypertensive adherence. Disease Management, 9, 291-301.

Johnson, S.S., Paiva, A.L., Cummins, C.O., Johnson, J.L., Dyment, S.J., Wright, J.A., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M., & Sherman, K. (2008). Transtheoretical model-based multiple behavior intervention for weight management: Effectiveness on a population basis. Preventive Medicine, 46, 238-246.

Levesque, D.A., Ciavatta, M.M., Castle, P.H., Prochaska, J.M., & Prochaska, J.O. (2012). Evaluation of a stage-based, computer-tailored adjunct to usual care for domestic violence Offenders. Psychology of Violence, 2, 368-384.

Levesque, D.A., Johnson, J.L., Welch, C.A., Prochaska, J.M., & Fernandez, A.C. (2012). Computer-tailored intervention for juvenile offenders. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 12(4), 391-411.

Levesque, D.A., Van Marter, D.F., Schneider, R.J., Bauer, M.R., Goldberg, D.N., Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2011). Randomized trial of a computer-tailored intervention for patients with depression. American Journal of Health Promotion, 26, 27-89.

Mauriello, L. M., Ciavatta, M. M., Paiva, A. L., Sherman, K. J., Castle, P. H.,  Johnson, J. L., Prochaska, J. M. (2010). Results of a Multi-Media Multiple Behavior Obesity Prevention Program for Adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 51, 451-456.

Prochaska, J.J., Hall, S., Delucchi, K., & Hall, S.M. (2013). Efficacy of initiating tobacco dependence treatment in inpatient psychiatry: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health. Advance online publication. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301403

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Ruggiero, L., Laforge, R.G., Rossi, J.S. et al. (2001a). Counselor and stimulus control enhancements of a stage-matched expert system intervention for smokers in a managed care setting. Preventive Medicine, 32, 23-32.

Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., Velicer, W.F., & Rossi, J.S. (1993). Standardized, individualized, interactive, and personalized self-help programs for smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 12, 399-405.

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Rossi, J.S., & Tsoh, J.Y. (2001b). Evaluating a population-based recruitment approach and a stage-based expert system intervention for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 583-602.

Prochaska, J.O., Butterworth, S., Redding, C.A., Burden, V., Perrin, N., Leo, M., Flahery-Robb, M., & Prochaska, J.M. (2008) Initial efficacy of MI, TTM tailoring and HRI’s with multiple behaviors for employee health problems. Preventive Medicine, 46, 226-231.

Prochaska, J.O., Evers, K.E., Castle, P.H., Johnson, J.L., Prochaska, J.M., Rula, E.Y., Coberley, C., & Pope, J.E. (2012). Enhancing multiple domains of well-being by decreasing multiple health risk behaviors: A randomized clinical trial. Population Health Management, 15(5), 276-286.

Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Prochaska, J.0., Abrams, D.B., Emmons, K.M., & Pierce, J. (1995). Distribution of smokers by stage in three representative samples. Preventive Medicine, 24, 401-411.

Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Paiva, A.L., Mauriello, L.M., Blissmer, B., Oatley, K., Meier, K.S., Babbin, S.F., McGee, H., Prochaska, J.O., Burditt, C., & Fernandez, A.C. (2013). Multiple behavior interventions to prevent substance abuse and increase energy balance behaviors in middle school students. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 3(1), 82-93.

Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Sun, X., & Prochaska, J.O. (2007). Demographic variables, smoking variables, and outcome across five studies. Health Psychology, 26, 278-287.