Evidence-based health and well-being for entire populations.

Pro-Change Awards and Recognition

Award Winning, Evidence-Based Behavior Change Science, Technology, and Products

2016

Pro-Change received NCQA Certification for our Health Risk Intervention as a Health Appraisal under Wellness and Health Promotion WHP. Read more…

Pro-Change was granted NCQA WHP certification for our Self-Management Tools.

Pro-Change Recertified as a Women’s Business Enterprise

2015


Dr. Sara Johnson Ranked in the Top 10 of WELCOA’s Health Promotion Professionals
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Dr. Kerry Evers Named to the Institute for Interactive Patient Care Board of Directors
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Pro-Change Recertified as a Women’s Business Enterprise*
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2014


Pro-Change’s HRI: A Health Risk Assessment and Intervention was awarded Health Information Products Certification for Health Appraisals by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA).URAC Gold Award
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2013


Pro-Change’s President & CEO, Janice M. Prochaska, PhD. was one of twelve women who received an Achievement Award at the 5th Annual Providence News Business Awards Luncheon. Dr. Prochaska was recognized for being well ahead of the curve in establishing disease prevention and wellness programs and evaluating their effectiveness.
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Pro-Change’s Senior Vice President of Research and Development, Sara Johnson, PhD, received an Award for Excellence in Reviewing for her service to the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. Dr. Johnson was selected from over 1,000 reviewers based on her dedication and the quality of her reviews.
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Pro-Change’s Depression Prevention program (Managing Your Mood) which is part of the LifeStyle Management Suite was listed on SAMHSA’s National Registry of Evidence Based Programs and Products.
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2012


The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the Federal agency charged with improving the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care, recognized Pro-Change’s LifeStyle Management Suite for a second time on their Innovations Exchange. The Innovations Exchange expedites the implementation of new and better ways of delivering health care.
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2011


Pro-Change’s Senior Vice President of Research and Product Development, Kerry Evers, PhD, was recognized among “Top 40 Under Forty” by Providence Business News (PBN). Dr. Evers was chosen based on career success and community involvement. PBN seeks the best and brightest in the state of Rhode Island who have made a commitment to making a difference on a local, national, and international scale.
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2010


Pro-Change was officially granted a Women’s Business Enterprise (WBE) certification by Women’s Business Enterprise National Council (WBENC).
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2009


Pro-Change won the URAC Gold Award in Health Management for its LifeStyle Management Suite at the Best Practices in Health Care Consumer Empowerment and Protection Conference.
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2008


Pro-Change’s Stress Management program (part of the LifeStyle Management Suite) was recognized by AHRQ and is included as part of their Health Care Innovations Exchange.
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2007


Pro-Change’s Stress Management program (part of the LifeStyle Management Suite) was listed on SAMHSA’s National Registry of Evidence Based Programs and Practices.
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Pro-Change won the Tibbetts Award for excellence in designing, implementing, and disseminating programs built from Small Business Innovation Research grants. Tibbetts Awards are presented to companies that are beacons of promise and models of excellence in high technology.
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Our Company

The Transtheoretical Model and the Stages of Change

Change is a process, not an event. This tenet underlies over 35 years of research into the how of change and is the basis from which all of our programs are developed. Using the Transtheoretical Model, also known as the Stages of Change, enables us to offer the guidance and support needed by entire populations, not just those who are ready to change a behavior.

stages-of-change-ttm

A Passion for Innovation

Our team of psychologists, public health professionals, and information specialists, has been at the forefront of innovation in the science and practice of behavior changes. While the Transtheoretical Model serves as the core foundation of our work, we incorporate other models of change, communication, and principles of persuasion.

Helping people to overcome the obstacles to change

Award-winning Programs Based on Rigorous Research

The foundation of our programs comes from federally-funded randomized control trials with results published in scientific journals. Powerful databases consisting of evidence-based algorithms generate tens of thousands of behavior change messages that are distilled down to just the right individual doses.

Population Health Management, Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Addictive Behaviors, Preventive Medicine, American Journal of Health Promotion

Strong Evidence-Base Makes the Difference

What sets us apart from other behavior change programs is the depth and extent of scientific research on which our programs are based and the fact that we continue to use the outcomes generated by our systems to refine our methods and content. Meta-analyses of tailored programs have consistently demonstrated that dynamic tailoring on multiple constructs of the Transtheoretical Model has significantly more impact on behavior change outcomes.

A graph of Pro-Change's Health Behavior Change program's outcomes as compared to competitors

The Transtheoretical Model

The Transtheoretical Model:

  • uses the Stages of Change to integrate the most powerful principles and processes of change from leading theories of counseling and behavior change;
  • is based on principles developed from over 35 years of scientific research, intervention development, and scores of empirical studies;
  • applies the results of research funded by over $80 million worth of grants and conducted with over 150,000 research participants; and
  • is currently in use by professionals around the world.

Overview of the Model

The Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983; Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992) is an integrative, biopsychosocial model to conceptualize the process of intentional behavior change. Whereas other models of behavior change focus exclusively on certain dimensions of change (e.g. theories focusing mainly on social or biological influences), the TTM seeks to include and integrate key constructs from other theories into a comprehensive theory of change that can be applied to a variety of behaviors, populations, and settings—hence, the name Transtheoretical.

The Stages of Change

Stages of Change lie at the heart of the TTM. Studies of change have found that people move through a series of stages when modifying behavior. While the time a person can stay in each stage is variable, the tasks required to move to the next stage are not. Certain principles and processes of change work best at each stage to reduce resistance, facilitate progress, and prevent relapse. Those principles include decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change. Only a minority (usually less than 20%) of a population at risk is prepared to take action at any given time. Thus, action-oriented guidance misserves individuals in the early stages. Guidance based on the TTM results in increased participation in the change process because it appeals to the whole population rather than the minority ready to take action.

The stage construct represents a temporal dimension. Change implies phenomena occurring over time. Surprisingly, none of the leading theories of therapy contained a core construct representing time. Traditionally, behavior change was often construed as an event, such as quitting smoking, drinking, or overeating. TTM recognizes change as a process that unfolds over time, involving progress through a series of stages. While progression through the Stages of Change can occur in a linear fashion, a nonlinear progression is common. Often, individuals recycle through the stages or regress to earlier stages from later ones.

Stages of Change
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
The Stages of Change 'curve'
Precontemplation (Not Ready)
Contemplation (Getting Ready)
Preparation (Ready)
Action
Maintenance
Not intending to take action in the next six months
Intending to take action in the next six months
Ready to take action in the next 30 days
Have made overt lifestyle changes in the past six months
Doing a new behavior for more than six months

Precontemplation (Not Ready)

People in the Precontemplation stage do not intend to take action in the foreseeable future, usually measured as the next six months. Being uninformed or under informed about the consequences of one’s behavior may cause a person to be in the Precontemplation stage. Multiple unsuccessful attempts at change can lead to demoralization about the ability to change. Precontemplators are often characterized in other theories as resistant, unmotivated, or unready for help. The fact is, traditional programs were not ready for such individuals and were not designed to meet their needs.

Contemplation (Getting Ready)

Contemplation is the stage in which people intend to change in the next six months. They are more aware of the pros of changing, but are also acutely aware of the cons. In a meta-analysis across 48 health risk behaviors, the pros and cons of changing were equal (Hall & Rossi, 2008). This weighting between the costs and benefits of changing can produce profound ambivalence that can cause people to remain in this stage for long periods of time. This phenomenon is often characterized as chronic contemplation or behavioral procrastination. Individuals in the Contemplation stage are not ready for traditional action-oriented programs that expect participants to act immediately.

Preparation (Ready)

Preparation is the stage in which people intend to take action in the immediate future, usually measured as the next month. Typically, they have already taken some significant action in the past year. These individuals have a plan of action, such as joining a gym, consulting a counselor, talking to their physician, or relying on a self-change approach. These are the people who should be recruited for action-oriented programs.

Action

Action is the stage in which people have made specific overt modifications in their lifestyles within the past six months. Because action is observable, the overall process of behavior change often has been equated with action. But in the TTM, Action is only one of five stages. Typically, not all modifications of behavior count as Action in this Model. In most applications, people have to attain a criterion that scientists and professionals agree is sufficient to reduce risk of disease. For example, reduction in the number of cigarettes or switching to low-tar and low-nicotine cigarettes were formerly considered acceptable actions. Now the consensus is clear—only total abstinence counts.

Maintenance

Maintenance is the stage in which people have made specific overt modifications in their lifestyles and are working to prevent relapse; however, they do not apply change processes as frequently as do people in Action. While in the Maintenance stage, people are less tempted to relapse and grow increasingly more confident that they can continue their changes. Based on self-efficacy data, researchers have estimated that Maintenance lasts from six months to about five years. While this estimate may seem somewhat pessimistic, longitudinal data in the 1990 Surgeon General’s report support this temporal estimate. After 12 months of continuous abstinence, 43% of individuals returned to regular smoking. It was not until 5 years of continuous abstinence that the risk for relapse dropped to 7% (USDHHS).

Decisional Balance

Decision making was conceptualized by Janis and Mann (1977) as a decisional “balance sheet” of comparative potential gains and losses. Two components of decisional balance, the pros and the cons, have become core constructs in the Transtheoretical Model. As individuals progress through the Stages of Change, decisional balance shifts in critical ways. When an individual is in the Precontemplation stage, the pros in favor of behavior change are outweighed by the relative cons for change and in favor of maintaining the existing behavior. In the Contemplation stage, the pros and cons tend to carry equal weight, leaving the individual ambivalent toward change. If the decisional balance is tipped however, such that the pros in favor of changing outweigh the cons for maintaining the unhealthy behavior, many individuals move to the Preparation or even Action stage. As individuals enter the Maintenance stage, the pros in favor of maintaining the behavior change should outweigh the cons of maintaining the change in order to decrease the risk of relapse.

Self-Efficacy

The TTM integrates elements of Bandura’s self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977, 1982). This construct reflects the degree of confidence individuals have in maintaining their desired behavior change in situations that often trigger relapse. It is also measured by the degree to which individuals feel tempted to return to their problem behavior in high-risk situations. In the Precontemplation and Contemplation stages, temptation to engage in the problem behavior is far greater than self-efficacy to abstain. As individuals move from Preparation to Action, the disparity between feelings of self-efficacy and temptation closes, and behavior change is attained. Relapse often occurs in situations where feelings of temptation trump individuals’ sense of self-efficacy to maintain the desired behavior change.

Processes of Change

While the Stages of Change are useful in explaining when changes in cognition, emotion, and behavior take place, the processes of change help to explain how those changes occur. These ten covert and overt processes need to be implemented to successfully progress through the stages of change and attain the desired behavior change. These ten processes can be divided into two groups: cognitive and affective experiential processes and behavioral processes.


Cognitive and Affective Experiential Processes

1. Consciousness Raising (Get the Facts)
2. Dramatic Relief (Pay Attention to Feelings)
3. Environmental Reevaluation (Notice Your Effect on Others)
4. Self-Reevaluation (Create a New Self-Image)
5. Social Liberation (Notice Public Support) Processes

Behavioral Processes
6. Self-Liberation (Make a Commitment)
7. Counter Conditioning (Use Substitutes)
8. Helping Relationships (Get Support)
9. Reinforcement Management (Use Rewards)
10. Stimulus Control (Manage Your Environment)

Critical Assumptions of the TTM

The Transtheoretical Model is also based on critical assumptions about the nature of behavior change and population health interventions that can best facilitate such change. The following set of assumptions drives Transtheoretical Model theory, research, and practice:

  • Behavior change is a process that unfolds over time through a sequence of stages. Health population programs need to assist people as they progress over time.
  • Stages are both stable and open to change, just as chronic behavior risk factors are both stable and open to change.
  • Population health initiatives can motivate change by enhancing the understanding of the pros and diminishing the value of the cons.
  • The majority of at-risk populations are not prepared for action and will not be served by traditional action-oriented prevention programs. Helping people set realistic goals, like progressing to the next stage, will facilitate the change process.
  • Specific principles and processes of change need to be emphasized at specific stages for progress through the stages to occur.

Transtheoretical Model Research Breakthroughs

1980s

  • Discovered the Stages of Change and the dynamic principles and processes of change related to each stage

1990s

  • Developed the first computer-tailored intervention based on the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change
  • Demonstrated tailored interventions for smoking cessation effective even when more than 80% were not ready to quit
  • Applied the Transtheoretical Model to a variety of behaviors beyond smoking cessation

2000s

  • Demonstrated that Transtheoretical Model-based interventions for simultaneous multiple behavior change are effective
  • Applied the Transtheoretical Model to a wide variety of new behavior change challenges
  • Served entire populations with inclusive proactive and home-based care

2010s

  • Implemented innovative strategies to ensure greater impact on multiple behaviors with fewer demands on patients and providers
  • Designed a more cost-effective delivery for coaching and online programs
  • Gained synergistic insights into how changing one behavior increases the chance of changing other behaviors (coaction)
  • Improved well-being by increasing productivity and thriving
  • Increased the efficacy of our best practices by 26% as a result of adding tailored text messages
  • Developed a Clinical Dashboard to provide evidence-based stage matched behavior change messages for clinicians to deliver to patients.

Tailoring Matters

A recent meta-analyses, by Noar et al., of 57 studies demonstrated greater effects in programs that are tailored on each of the Transtheoretical Model constructs. Specifically, programs that tailor on stage do better than those that do not; programs that tailor on pros and cons do better than those that do not; programs that tailor on self-efficacy do better than those that do not, and programs that tailor on processes of change do better than those that do not.

Noar, S.M., Benac, C.N., and Harris, M.S. (2007) Does tailoring matter? Meta-analytic review of tailored print health behavior change interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 4, 673-693. abstract
Abstract:
Although there is a large and growing literature on tailored print health behavior change interventions, it is currently not known if or to what extent tailoring works. The current study provides a meta-analytic review of this literature, with a primary focus on the effects of tailoring. A comprehensive search strategy yielded 57 studies that met inclusion criteria. Those studies, which contained a cumulative N = 58,454, were subsequently meta-analyzed. The sample-size weighted mean effect size of the effects of tailoring on health behavior change was found to be r = .074. Variables that were found to significantly moderate the effect included 1) type of comparison condition; 2) health behavior; 3) type of subject population (both type of recruitment and country of sample); 4) type of print material; 5) number of intervention contacts; 6) length of follow-up; 7) number and type-of theoretical concepts tailored on; and 8) whether or not demographics and/or behavior were tailored on. Implications of these results are discussed and future directions for research on tailored health messages and interventions are offered.

To learn about the efficacy of our online programs, see the citations on each of our products pages, or our program effectiveness summary. A 2008 replication study at Oregon Science and Health University also shows program effectiveness; see:

Prochaska, J.O., Butterworth, S., Redding, C.A., Burden, V., Perrin, N., Lea, Michael, Flaherty, Robb M., and Prochaska, J.M. (2008). Initial efficacy of MI, TTM tailoring, and HRI’s in multiple behaviors for employee health promotion. Preventive Medicine, 46, 226-231. abstract
Abstract:
Objective. This study was designed to compare the initial efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI), Online Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-tailored communications and a brief Health Risk Intervention (HRI) on four health risk factors (inactivity, BMI, stress and smoking) in a worksite sample.
Method. A randomized clinical trial assigned employees to one of three recruitment strategies and one of the three treatments. The treatment protocol included an HRI session for everyone and in addition either a recommended three TTM online sessions or three MI in person or telephone sessions over 6 months. At the initial post-treatment assessment at 6 months, groups were compared on the percentage who had progressed from at risk to taking effective action on each of the four risks.
Results. Compared to the HRI only group, the MI and TTM groups had significantly more participants in the Action stage for exercise and effective stress management and significantly fewer risk behaviors at 6 months. MI and TTM group outcomes were not different.
Conclusion. This was the first study to demonstrate that MI and online TTM could produce significant multiple behavior changes. Future research will examine the long-term impacts of each treatment, their cost effectiveness, effects on productivity and quality of life and process variables mediating outcomes.
Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., & Norcross, J.C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to the addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102-1114. PMID: 1329589.
Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C.A., & Evers, K. (2002). The Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change. In K. Glanz, B.K. Rimer & F.M. Lewis, (Eds.) Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice (3rd Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Multiple Health Behavior Change

More impact on health and well-being

Pro-Change has long been a leader in providing innovative multiple behavior change programs, which have the potential to offer significantly more impact on health and well-being.

Beginning with the development of the Managing Cholesterol Program, Pro-Change recognized how crucial it was that the fully tailored adherence program be paired with interventions for the other lifestyle behaviors that are key in managing high cholesterol. The results of the initial Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) funded effectiveness trial exemplify the potential for coaction of behavior change when fully tailored interventions are paired with stage-matched interventions. The treatment group received a full expert system for medication adherence and stage-matched guidance for exercise and dietary fat. The treatment group was 50% more likely than the control to reach Action or Maintenance for all behaviors (Johnson et al., 2006).

The results of Pro-Change’s SBIR-funded, population-based, weight management program add to the support for effective multiple behavior TTM-based interventions. The randomized trial, which included 1277 overweight or obese adults, found significant treatment effects for healthy eating, exercise, managing emotional distress, and untreated fruit and vegetable intake. Participants in the intervention condition who received diet and physical activity interventions lost significantly more weight at follow-up than usual care participants and were significantly more likely to lose at least 5% of their baseline weight.


For Youth

Exploring innovative options

The success of multiple behavior change is also clear in younger samples. TTM-based multimedia programs for bullying prevention have had similar success in diverse populations (Evers et al., 2007). The trials included 12 elementary schools (40.6% of free lunch eligible); 12 middle schools (48.6% eligible); and 13 high schools (42.3% eligible). The programs had significant effects on three roles related to bullying (i.e., bully, bystander, victim). Overall, the odds ratios indicated that intervention groups were 3-4 times as likely as the control group to progress to Action/Maintenance (i.e., not participate in any role related to bullying) (Van Marter et al., 2006; Evers et al., 2007).

Our multiple behavior change obesity prevention program, Health in Motion, targeted three energy balance areas: increasing physical activity, eating more fruits and vegetables, and reducing TV time. (Mauriello et al., 2010; Driskell, et al., 2008; Velicer et al., 2013). The program was tested in two separate randomized clinical trials with nearly 6,000 adolescents (middle and high school students). Both trials (tested by separate groups and funded by different Institutes) demonstrated that Health in Motion is effective at increasing the targeting energy balance behaviors, reducing overall number of behavioral risks, reducing relapse, and promotion of multiple behavior changes. The middle school trial is noteworthy in two important ways. The follow-up assessment was extended to 36 months, and strong effects of Health in motion influencing energy balance behaviors persisted. Additionally, in that trial Health in Motion was used as a control program for testing a substance use prevention program (decreasing smoking and alcohol). Despite no direct treatment, the energy balance group showed significantly lower smoking and alcohol use than the substance use prevention program. It can be hypothesized that the positive healthy lifestyle messages had a great impact at preventing substance use among adolescents than direct messages against those behaviors.

Within the LifeStyle Management Suite, users participate in a multiple behavior change program, such as Managing High Blood Pressure, or participate in two or more single behavior programs, such as smoking, stress, and exercise.


Additional Reading

Prochaska JO. Multiple health behavior research represents the future of preventive medicine. Prev Med. 2008;46:281-285.

Jones, H., Edwards, L., Vallis, T. M., Ruggiero, L., Rossi, S. R., Rossi, J. S. et al. (2003). Diabetes Stages of Change (DiSC) Study. Changes in diabetes self-care behaviors make a difference in glycemic control: The diabetes stages of change (DiSC) study. Diabetes Care, 26, 732-737.

Prochaska, J. O., Butterworth, S., Redding, C. A., Burden, V., Perrin, N., Leo, M. et al. (2008). Initial efficacy of MI, TTM tailoring and HRI’s with multiple behaviors for employee health promotion. Preventive Medicine, 46, 226-231.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Redding, C., Rossi, J. S., Goldstein, M., DePue, J. et al. (2005a). Stage-based expert systems to guide a population of primary care patients to quit smoking, eat healthier, prevent skin cancer, and receive regular mammograms. Preventive Medicine, 41, 406-416.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Rossi, J. S., & Goldstein, M. G. (2004). Stage effects in 70 comparisons in a population cessation trial. Addictive Behaviors.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Rossi, J. S., Redding, C. A., Greene, G. W., Rossi, S. R. et al. (2004). Multiple Risk Expert Systems Interventions: Impact of Simultaneous Stage-Matched Expert System Interventions for Smoking, High-Fat Diet, and Sun Exposure in a Population of Parents. Health Psychology, 23, 503-516.

Citations

Driskell, M.M., Dyment S.J., Mauriello, L.M., Castle, P.H., & Sherman, K.J. (2008). Relationships among multiple behaviors for childhood and adolescent obesity prevention. Preventive Medicine, 46, 209-315. abstract

Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.O., Van Marter, D.F., Johnson, J.L., & Prochaska, J.M. (2007). Transtheoretical-Based Bullying Prevention Effectiveness Trials In Middle Schools and High Schools. Educational Research, 49(4), 397-414.

Johnson, S.S., Driskell, M.M., Johnson, J., Dyment, S., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M., Bourne, L. (2006). Transtheoretical Model intervention for adherence to lipid-lowering drugs. Disease Management, 9(2), 102-114.

Johnson, S.S, Paiva, A.L. Cummins, C., Johnson, J.L. Dyment, S., Wright, J.A., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, JM., Sherman, K. (2008). Evidence-based Multiple Behavior Intervention for Weight Management: Effectiveness on a Population Basis. Preventive Medicine, 46, 238-246.

Mauriello, L. M., Ciavatta, M. M., Paiva, A. L., Sherman, K. J., Castle, P. H., Johnson, J. L., Prochaska, J. M. (2010). Results of a Multi-Media Multiple Behavior Obesity Prevention Program for Adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 51, 451-456.

Van Marter, D., Evers, K., Johnson, J., Dyment, S., Prochaska, J.M., and Prochaska, J.O. (November, 2006). Bullying prevention across the school years: effectiveness trial outcomes of Transtheoretical model-based programs for elementary, middle and high school students. Poster presented at the 134th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association: Boston, MA.

Velicer WF, Redding CA, Paiva AL, Mauriello LM, Blissmer B, Oatley K, Meier KS, Babbin SF, McGee H, Prochaska JO, Burditt C, Fernandez AC. (2013). Multiple risk factor intervention to prevent substance abuse and increase energy balance behaviors in middle school students. Translational Behavior Medicine, 3, 82-93.

Pro-Change continues to explore innovative options for maximizing the effectiveness of multiple behavior change interventions while minimizing response burden. Trials on college student health and healthy pregnancy also provide important data on the utility of optimal tailoring.

Janice M. Prochaska, Ph.D.

Janice Prochaska

Consultant, Former President & Chief Executive Officer

JMProchaska@prochange.com

One of the most published authors in the field of social work, Dr. Janice M. Prochaska has led research and development teams for health behavior and organizational change programs as the CEO at Pro-Change Behavior Systems, Inc. from 1997 – 2015.

Her collaborations include applying the Model to cutting edge issues like simultaneously reducing multiple risk behaviors and enhancing multiple domains of well-being, healthy weight management in children and adults, preventing bullying, keeping individuals out of trouble with the law, and advancing careers with populations like women scientists.

Dr. Prochaska, who holds an adjunct position at URI, earned her Master’s in Social Work from Wayne State University and her Ph.D. in Social Work Administration and Policy from Boston College. In 2013, she was recognized with an Achievement Award by the Providence Business News as one of the Outstanding Leaders in New England.

Publications

Books

Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2016). Changing to thrive: overcome the top risks to lasting health and happiness. Hazelden Publishing, Center City MN.

Articles and Chapters

Prochaska, J.J. & Prochaska, J.M., & Prochaska, J.O.  (2018).  Building a science for multiple-risk behavior change.  In M.E. Hilliard (Ed.).  The Handbook of Health Behavior Change Fifth Edition, Springer Publishing Company, LLC.  New York, NY

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2018).  Digitally Assisted Interventions for the treatment and prevention of risky behaviors in adults.  In Faust, D. & Faust, K. (Eds.).  Digital Technologies and Mental Health.  Oxford University Press.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2018). Enhancing Motivation to Change.  In Fiellin, D., Miller, S. & Saitz, R. (Eds.).  The ASAM Principles of Addiction Medicine (Sixth edition, Chapter 63).

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2018). Prevention of Illness and healthy promotion intervention. In T. Hadjistavropoulos & H.D. Hadjistavropoulos (Eds.) Fundamentals of Health Psychology. Ontario, Canada: Oxford University Press.

Levesque, D. A., Johnson, J. L., & Prochaska, J. M.  (2017).  Teen Choices, an Online Stage-based Program for Healthy, Non-Violent Relationships: Development and Feasibility Trial. Journal of School Violence, 16(4), 376-385.

Mauriello, L.M., Johnson, S. S., Prochaska, J.M.  (2017).  Meeting Patients Where They Are At:  Using a Stage Approach to Facilitate engagement.  In:  O’Donohue, W., James, L., snipes, C. (EDS.).  Practical Strategies and Tools to Promote Treatment Engagement.  Springer, Cham.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2016).  Methodological challenges in developing preventive health intervention for mental health and aging.  Lavretsky, H. Sajatovic, M. and Reynolds, C. (Eds.).  In Complementary and Integrative Therapies for Mental Health and Aging.  Oxford University Press.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2016).  Stages of change in couple and family therapy.  In Lebow, J et al. Encyclopedia of Couple and Family Therapy.  Springer International Publishing.

Levesque, D. A., Johnson, J. L., Welch, C. A., Prochaska, J. M., & Paiva, A. L. (2016). Teen dating violence prevention: Cluster-randomized trial of Teen Choices, an online, stage-based program for healthy, nonviolent relationships. Psychology of Violence, 6(3), 421-432. Retrieved from PM:27482470

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2016). Behavior change. In Nash, Daniel B., Fabries, R. J., Skoufalos, A., Clarke, J. L., and Horowitz, M. R. (Eds.) Population Health: Creating a Culture of Wellness. Second Edition. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Koyun, A., & Prochaska, J.M. (2015). The Stages Of Change Regarding Smoking Cessation Behavior: A Concept Analysis. Uhd International Refereed Journal Of Nursing Researches, (5), 81-81. doi:10.17371/uhd.2015514476

Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.J.  (2015). Transtheoretical model guidelines for families with child abuse and neglect. In A. R. Roberts & G .J. Greene (Eds.), Third Edition Social Workers’ Desk Reference, (pp. 641-647). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Evers, K.E., Castle, P.H., Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2014). Examining relationships between multiple health risk behaviors, well-being and productivity, Psychological Reports: Mental & Physical Health, 114, 3, 843-853.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2014). Transtheoretical Model. In O’Donnell, M. P. (Ed.) Health Promotion in the Workplace: Improving Awareness, Enhancing Motivation, Building Skills, and Creating Opportunities. Fourth Edition. Troy, MI: American Journal of Health Promotion.

Prochaska, J.J., Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O. (2014). Building a science for multiple-risk behavior change. In S. Shumaker, J. Ockene, K. Riekert (Eds.) The Handbook of Health Behavior Change Fourth Edition, Springer Publishing Company, LLC. New York, NY.

Prochaska, J. M. and Prochaska, J. O. (2014) A stage approach to enhancing adherence to treatment. In The Handbook of Behavioral Medicine (Ed. D. I. Mostofsky), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK. doi:10.1002/9781118453940.ch4

Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O., & Bailey, D. (2013). Towards an integration of stage theories of planned organizational change. In Leonard, Lewis & Freedman (Eds.) The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of The Psychology of Leadership, Change and Organizational Development. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.

Araban, M., Tavafian, S.S., Arandi, S.M., Hidarnia, A.R., Gohari, M.R., Prochaska, J.M., Labuie, A., & Monatazeri, A. (2013). Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 11:16 doi:10.1186/2052-336-11-16.

Johnson, J.L., Prochaska, J.O., Paiva, A.L., Fernandez, A.C., DeWees, S. L., & Prochaska, J.M. (2013) Advancing bodies of evidence for population-based health promotion programs: Randomized controlled trials and case studies. Population Health Management, 16(6): 373-380. doi:10.1089/pop.2012.0094

Evers, K. E., Prochaska, J.O., Castle, P.H., Johnson, J. L., Prochaska, J.M., Harrison, P.L., Rula, E.Y., Coberley, C., & Pope, J.E. (2012) Development of an individual well-being scores assessment. Psychology of Well-Being: Theory, Research and Practice, 2(2) doi:10.1186/2211-1522-2-2.

Evers, K.E., Castle, P.H., Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2014). Examining relationships between multiple health risk behaviors, well-being, and productivity. Psychological Reports, 114, 843-853.

Mauriello, L., Kue, M. Paiva, A., Gokbayrak, S., Fernadez, A., Wade, M., Prochaska, J. O., & Prochaska, J. M. (under review). Applying the Transtheoretical Model and measures to multicultural competence among college students.

Paiva, A.L., Cummins, C.O., Gökbayrak, N.S., Johnson, J.L., Dyment, S., Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (Under review). College dropout prevention: Development of stage of change, decisional balance, and situational temptation measures.

Evers, K.E., Paiva, A.L., Johnson, J.L., Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M., Padula, J., & Gökbayrak, N.S. (2012). Results of a transtheoretical model-based alcohol, tobacco and other drug intervention in middle schools. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 109-118. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.04.008.

Prochaska, J.O., Evers, K.E., Castle, P.H., Johnson, J.L., Prochaska, J.M., Rula, E.Y., Coberley, C., & Pope, J.E. (2012). Enhancing multiple domains of well-being by decreasing multiple health risk behaviors: A randomized clinical trial. Population Health Management, 276-286.

Harlow, L.L., Stamm, K.E., Santiago, M., Silver, B., Mederer, H., Bourdeaux-Bartels, G.F., Peckham, J., Wishner, K., Swift, J., & Prochaska, J.M. (2012). Work environment and satisfaction at a mid-sized northeast U.S. university. In Gregory A. Katsas (Ed.) Current Issues in Sociology: Work and Minorities (pp. 9-18). Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research.

Horiuchi, S., Tsuda, A., Kobayashi, H., & Prochaska, J.M. (2012). Reliability and validity of the Japanese language version of Pro-Change’s decisional balance measure for effective stress management. Japanese Psychological Research, 2, 128-136.

Horiuchi, S., Tsuda, A., Prochaska, J.M., Kobayashi, H., & Mihara, K. (2012). Relationships between stages and processes of change for effective stress management in Japanese college students. Psychology, 2.

Levesque, D.A., Ciavatta, M.M., Castle, P.H., Prochaska, J.M., & Prochaska, J.O. (2012). Evaluation of a stage-based, computer-tailored adjunct to usual care for domestic violence offenders. Psychology of Violence, 1-17.

Levesque, D.A., Van Marter, D.F., Greene, R.N., Prochaska, J.M., Castle, P.H., & Prochaska, J. O. (2011). Assessing adolescents’ readiness to use healthy relationship skills for dating violence prevention: Measure development and validation. Family and Intimate Partner Violence Quarterly, 3, 319-343.

Levesque, D.A., Van Marter, D.F., Schneider, R.J., Bauer, M.R., Goldberg, D.N., Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2011). Randomized trial of a transtheoretical model intervention for depression in primary care. American Journal of Health Promotion, 26, 77-89.

Mauriello, L., Dyment, S., Prochaska, J.M., Gagliardi, A. & Weingrad-Smith, J. (2011). Acceptability and feasibility of a multiple behavior computer tailored intervention for underserved pregnant women. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 56, 75-80.

Mauriello, L.M., Gökbayrak, N.S., Van Marter, D.F., Paiva, A.L., & Prochaska, J.M. (2011). An internet-based computer tailored intervention to promote responsible drinking: Findings from a pilot test with employed adults. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 30, 81-108.

Prochaska, J.M., Mauriello, L., Dyment, S., & Gökbayrak, S. (2011). Designing a health behavior change program for dissemination to underserved pregnant women. Public Health Nursing, 28, 548-555.

Prochaska, J. M., Prochaska, J. O., Evers, K. E., & Tsuda, A. (2011). Psycho-educational supports for school children and adolescents. In A. Tsuda, Y. Ohya, & Y. Tanno (Eds.), Clinical Stress Psychology. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.

Prochaska, J.O., Evers, K.E., Johnson, J.L., Castle, P.H., Prochaska, J.M., Sears, L.E., Rula, E.Y., & Pope, J.E. (2011). The well-being assessment for productivity: A well-being approach to presenteeism. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53, 735-742.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2011). Recent findings related to the transtheoretical model. In J. Trafton & W.P. Gordon (Eds.) Best Practices in the Behavioral Management of Disease, (Volume 1, pp S1-1-S1-5).

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2011). High-impact paradigms for changing behavior to enhance health, productivity, and well-being. In J. Brown & D.B. Nash (Eds.) Disease Management and Wellness in the Post-Reform Era, (pp. 61-710. Washington, D.C.: Atlantic Information Services, Inc.

Horiuchi, S., Kim, E., Tsuda, A., & Prochaska, J.M. (2010). Relationship between stage of change and self-efficacy for stress management behavior in Korean university students. Japanese Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 12-19.

Horiuchi, S., Tsuda, A., Kim, E., & Prochaska, J.M. (2010). Relationships between stage of change and decisional balance for stress management behavior in Korean elementary school teachers. Japanese Journal of Stress Science, 25, 64-74.

Mauriello, L.M., Ciavatta, M.M.H., Paiva, A.L., Sherman, K.J., Castle, P.H., Johnson, J.L. & Prochaska, J.M. (2010). Results of a multi-media multiple behavior obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 51, 451-456.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2010). Self-directed change. In Maddox & Tangney (Eds.) Social Psychological Foundations of Clinical Psychology. New York: Guilford Publications.

Johnson, S.S., Cummins, C.O., Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O. (2009). Proactive health consumerism: An important new tool for worksite health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion, The Art of Health Promotion, 23, 1-8.

Levesque, D.A., Driskell, M.M, & Prochaska, J.M., & Prochaska, J.O. (2009). Acceptability of a stage-matched expert system intervention for domestic violence offenders. In C.M. Murphy & R.D. Maiuro (Eds.), Motivational interviewing and stages of change in intimate partner violence (pp 43-60). New York: Springer.

Prochaska, J. O. & Prochaska, J. M. (2009). Change (stages of). In S. J. Lopez, (Ed.). The Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology. Oxford, UK and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O. (2009). Transtheoretical model guidelines for families with child abuse and neglect. In A. R. Roberts & G .J. Greene (Eds.), Second Edition Social Workers’ Desk Reference, (pp. 641-647). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Johnson, S. S., Paiva, A. L., Cummins, C. O., Johnson, J. L., Dyment, S. J., Wright, J. A., Prochaska, J. O., Prochaska, J. M., & Sherman, K. (2008). Transtheoretical model-based multiple behavior intervention for weight management: Effectiveness on a population basis. Preventive Medicine, 46, 238-246.

Levesque, D. A., Driskell, M. M., Prochaska, J. M., & Prochaska, J. O. (2008). Acceptability of a stage-matched expert system intervention for domestic violence offenders. Violence and Victims, 23, 432-445.

Prochaska, J. J. & Prochaska, J. M. (2008). Multiple risk behavior change: What most individuals need. In S. A. Shumaker, J. K. Ockene, & K. A. Riekert (Eds.), Handbook of health behavior change (Third Edition) (pp. 287-305). New York: Springer Publishing.

Prochaska, J. O., Butterworth, S., Redding, C. A., Burden, V., Perrin, N., Leo, M., Flaherty-Robb, M., & Prochaska, J. M. (2008). Initial efficacy of MI, TTM Tailoring, and HRI’s with multiple behaviors for employee health promotion. Preventive Medicine, 46, 226-231

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2008). High-impact paradigms for changing behaviors to enhance health, productivity and well-being. In J. Brown & D.B. Nash (Eds.), The Next Generation of Disease Management: 2009 and beyond, (pp. 35-43). Washington, DC: Atlantic Information Services, Inc.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2008). Termination at each stage of change. In W.T. O’Donohue & M.A. Cucciare (Eds.) Terminating Psychotherapy: A Clinician’s Guide, 147-162. New York: Rutlidge.

Xiao, J.J, Prawitz, A.D., Prochaska, J.M., O’Neill, B, Kim, J., & Garman. (2008). Strategies for motivating employees to develop positive financial behaviors: An application of the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Special publication of the Personal Finance Employee Education Foundation, pp. 1-8.

Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.O., Van Marter, D.F., Johnson, J.L., & Prochaska, J.M. (2007). Transtheoretical based bullying prevention effectiveness trials in middle schools and high schools. Educational Research, 49, 397-414.

Mauriello, L. M., Sherman, K. J., Driskell, M. M., & Prochaska, J.M. (2007). Using interactive behavior change technology to intervene on physical activity and nutrition with adolescents. Adolescent Medicine, 18, 383-399.

Prochaska, J.M. (2007). The transtheoretical model applied to the community and the workplace. Journal of Health Psychology, 12, 198-200.

Prochaska, J.O., Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.M., Van Marter, D.F. & Johnson, J.L. (2007). Efficacy and effectiveness trials: Examples from smoking cessation and bullying prevention. Journal of Health Psychology, 12, 170-178.

Silver, B., Prochaska, J. M., Mederer, H., Harlow, L., & Sherman, K. (2007). Advancing women scientists: Exploring a theoretically-grounded climate change workshop model. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 13, 207-230.

Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.O., Mauriello, L.M., Padula, J.A., & Prochaska, J.M. (2006). A randomized clinical trial of a population with transtheoretical-based stress management intervention. Health Psychology, 25, 521-529.

Johnson, J.L., Evers, K.E., Paiva, A.L., Prochaska, J.O., Van Marter, D.F., Prochaska, J.M., Mauriello, L.M., Cummins, C.O., & Padula, J.A. (2006). Prevention profiles: Understanding youth who do not use substances. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1593-1606.

Johnson, S.S., Driskell, M.M., Johnson, J.L., Dyment, S.J., Prochaska, J.M., & Bourne, L. (2006). Transtheoretical model intervention for adherence to lipid-lowering drugs. Disease Management, 9, 102-114.

Johnson, S.S., Driskell, M.M., Johnson, J.L., Prochaska, J.M., Zwick,W., & Prochaska, J.O. (2006). Efficacy of a transtheoretical model-based expert system for antihypertensive adherence. Disease Management, 9, 291-301.

Levesque, D.A., Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.M., and Prochaska, J.O. (2006). Stage of change for making an informed decision about medicare health plans. Health Service Research, 41, 1372-1391.

Levesque, D.A., Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O., Heller, A. (2006). Randomized trial of stage-based interventions for informed medicare choices. Health Care Financing Review, 27, 27-40.

Mauriello, L.M., Driskell, M.M., Sherman, K.J., Johnson, S.S., Prochaska, J.M., & Prochaska, J.O., (2006). Acceptability of a school-based intervention for the prevention of adolescent obesity. Journal of School Nursing, 22, 269-284.

Prochaska, J. M., Mauriello, L.M., Sherman, K.J., Harlow, L., Silver, B., and Trubatch, J. (2006). Assessing readiness for advancing women scientists using the transtheoretical model. Sex Roles: A Research Journal, 54, 869-880.

Prochaska, J. M., Prochaska, J. O., Evers, K. E., & Tsuda, A. (2006). A new stress management program based on the transtheoretical model using the internet. In A. Tsuda & J. O. Prochaska (Eds.), New Practice for Stress Management (pp. 58-71). Tokyo: Shibundo.

Evers, K.E., Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2005). Online health behavior and disease management programs: Are we ready for them? Are they ready for us? Journal of Medical Internet Research, 7, 1-5.

Hageman, L., Montgomery, J.E., & Prochaska, J.M. (2005). Are you emotionally ready for adoption? Family Building, Winter, 16-17.

Prochaska, J.M. (2005). The transtheoretical model. Taking stock: A survey on the practice and future of change management. In H. Nauheimer (Ed.), The Change Management Toolbook. Berlin, Germany.

Prochaska, J.M., Levesque, D.A., Prochaska, J.O. Skills for mastering change in the workplace (2005). In K. Prashant (Ed.) Change Management. Hyderabad, India: ICFAI Books.

Prochaska, J.M., Paiva, A.L., Padula, J.A., Prochaska, J.O., Montgomery, J.E., Hageman, L., & Begart, A.M. (2005). Assessing emotional readiness for adoption using the transtheoretical model. Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 135-152.

Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O. (2005). Helping patients change unhealthy behaviors. In D.S. Jones & S. Quinn (Eds.) Textbook of Functional Medicine, (pp.722-728). Gig Harbor, WA.: Institute for Functional Medicine.

Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O., & Evers, K.E. (2005). Stress management using the

transtheoretical model. In K. Takenaka (Ed.), Stress Management, (pp ). Japan: Yumani.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2005). An update on maximum impact practices from a transtheoretical approach. In Best Practices in the Behavioral Management of Chronic Disease, 1-16. Los Altos: Institute for Disease Management.

Cummins, C.O., Evers, K.E., Johnson, J.L., Paiva, A., Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2004). Assessing stage of change and informed decision making for internet participation in health promotion and disease management. Managed Care Interface, 17, 27-32.

Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O., Cohen, F.C., Gomes, S.O., & Laforge, R.G., & Eastwood, A. (2004). The transtheoretical model of change for multi-level interventions for alcohol abuse on campus, Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 47, 34-50.

Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O., & Johnson, S.S. (2004). Assessing readiness for treatment adherence. In W.O. Donohue & E. Levensky, (Eds.) Promoting Treatment Adherence, 35-46. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M. (2004). Assessment as intervention within the transtheoretical model. In M.E. Maruish (Ed.), The Use of Psychological Testing for Treatment Planning and Outcomes Assessment, (Third Ed). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.M., & Johnson, J.L.(2004). Size, consistency, and stability of stage effects for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 207-213.

Xiao, J.J., O’Neill, B., Prochaska, J.M., Kerbel, C., Brennan, P., & Bristow, B. (2004). A consumer education programme based on the transtheoretical model of change. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 28, 55-65.

Xiao, J.J., Newman, B., Prochaska, J.M., Leon, R., & Bassett, R. (2004). Voices of debt troubled consumers: A theory-based qualitative inquiry. Journal of Personal Finance, 3, 56-74.

Xiao, J.J., Newman, B.M., Prochaska, J.M., Leon, B., & Bassett, R.L., Johnson, J. (2004). Applying the transtheoretical model of change to consumer debt behavior. Financial Counseling and Planning Education, 15, 77-88.

Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O., Driskell, M.M., Cummins, C.O., & Velicer, W.F.             (2003). Strengths and weaknesses of health behavior change programs on the internet. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 63-70.

Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.O., Driskell, M.M., Evers, K.E., Wright, J.A., Prochaska, J.M. & Velicer, W.F. (2003). Development of criteria to evaluate health behavior change websites. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 55-63.

Mannock, T.J., Levesque, D.A., & Prochaska, J.M. (2002). Assessing readiness of clients with disabilities to engage in job seeking behaviors. Journal of Rehabilitation, 68, 16-28.

Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska J.O. (2002). Transtheoretical model guidelines for families with child abuse and neglect. In A.R. Roberts & G.J. Greene (Eds.), Social Workers’ Desk Reference, 379-384. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Levesque, D.A., Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J. O., Dewart, S.R., Hamby, L.S., & Weeks, W.B. (2001).Organizational stages and processes of change for continuous quality improvement in healthcare. Consulting Psychology Journal, 53, 139-153.

Prochaska, J.M., Levesque, D.A., Prochaska, J.O., Dewart, S.R., & Wing, G.R., (2001). Mastering change: A core competency for employees. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 1, 7-15.

Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O. & Levesque, D.A. (2001). A transtheoretical approach to changing organizations. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 28, 247-261.

Sarkin, J.A., Johnson, S.S., Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2001). Applying the transtheoretical model to regular moderate exercise in an overweight population: Validation of a stages of change measure. Preventive Medicine, 33, 462-469.

Prochaska, J.M. (2000). A transtheoretical model for assessing organizational change: A study of family service agencies’ movement to time limited therapy. Families in Society, 80, 76-84.

Brogan, M.M., Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (1999). Predicting termination and continuation status in psychotherapy using the transtheoretical model. Psychotherapy, 36, 105-113.

Levesque, D.A., Prochaska, J. M., & Prochaska, J. O. (1999). Stages of change and integrated service delivery. Consulting Psychology Journal, 51, 226-241.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (1999). Helping cure health care systems: Changing minds and behaviour. Disease Management and Health Outcomes, 6, 335-341.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (1999). Why don’t continents move? Why don’t people change? Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 9, 83-102.

Prochaska, J.M. (1994). Social entrepreneurship: A challenge for mental health managers. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 21, 531-535.

Prochaska, J.M. (1993). Competition in the nonprofit world: Let’s face it. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 20, 189-191.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (1993). A transtheoretical model of change for addictive behaviors in M. Gessop & M. Casas (Eds.), Psychological Treatments of Addictive Behaviors. Barcelona, Spain: Cevron.

Prochaska, J.M. (1991). Book review: Youth suicide. Editors, P. Cimbolic and D. A. Jobes, Families in Society, 72, 442-443.

Prochaska, J.M. (1990). Book review: Evaluating family programs. Author, H.B. Weiss & F.H. Jakobs, Families in Society, 71, 81-83.

Prochaska, J.M. (1987). Middle management in human services: Moving from clinician to manager. Social Casework, 68, 567-570.

Prochaska, J.M. (1986). Publish or practice: Why not both? Social Casework, 7, 433-436.

Prochaska, J.M. & Dibari, P. (1985). Toward a totally fair fee system at a multi-service agency. Administration in Social Work, 9, 49-58.

Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O. (1985). Children’s views on the causes and cures of sibling rivalry. Child Welfare, 4, 427-433.

Prochaska, J.M. & Arsenault, R. (1984). Intra-agency contracting: High quality comprehensive emergency service delivery at low cost. Child Welfare, 6, 433-539.

Dooley, B., Prochaska, J.M., & Klibanoff, P. (1983). What next? An educational program for parents of newborns. Social Work in Health Care, 8, 95-103.

Prochaska, J.M. (1983). Book Review: The remarried family: Challenge and promise. Author, E. Wald, Social Work, 28, 244.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (1983). Teaching psychology to elementary school children. Teaching of Psychology, 10, 82-84.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (1982). Dual career families: A challenge to spouses and agencies. Social Casework, 63, 118-120.

Prochaska, J.M. & Coyle, J. (1979). Choosing parenthood: A needed family life education group. Social Casework, 60, 289-295.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (1979). Utuikklingen av ekteskapet lg ekleskapsterapi I det 20 arhundre. Fokus pa Familien, 7, 44-53.

Prochaska, J. M. & Fallon, B. (1979). Preparing a community for family life education. Child Welfare, 58, 665-672.

Prochaska, J. M. (1978). Private practice may benefit agencies. Social Casework, 59, 374-375.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (1978). Marriage and treatment of marital disorders: Psychoanalytic behavioral and systems theory perspectives. T. Paolino & B. McGrady (Eds.), Twentieth Century Trends in Marriage and Marital Counseling, 1-24. New York: Brunner/Mazel, Inc.

Prochaska, J. M. (1977). Confidentiality and client records. Social Casework, 58, 371-372.

 

 

 

James O. Prochaska, Ph.D.

Janice Prochaska

Director, Cancer Prevention Research Center
Professor of Clinical and Health Psychology
University of Rhode Island
Founder of Pro-Change Behavior Systems, Inc.

James O. Prochaska is Director of Cancer Prevention Research Center and Professor of Clinical and Health Psychology at the University of Rhode Island. He is the author of over 400 publications, including four books, Changing to Thrive, Changing for Good, Systems of Psychotherapy, and The Transtheoretical Approach.

He is internationally recognized for his work as a developer of the stage model of behavior change. He is the principal investigator on over $80 million dollars in research grants for the prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. He is the founder of Pro-Change Behavior Systems.

Dr. Prochaska has won numerous awards including the Top Five Most Cited Authors in Psychology from the American Psychology Society, an Innovator’s Award from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and is the first psychologist to win a Medal of Honor for Clinical Research from the American Cancer Society. Dr. Prochaska has recently been recognized as one of the top three most preeminent clinical psychologists.

Dr. Prochaska earned his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology at Wayne State University.

Publications

4 Books

Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2016). Changing to thrive: overcome the top risks to lasting health and happiness. Hazelden Publishing, Center City MN.

Prochaska, J. O. & Norcross, J. (2014). Systems of psychotherapy: A transtheoretical analysis (Eight Edition). Cengage Learning, CT. Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole. ISBN-13 978-1285176024

Prochaska, J.O., Norcross, J.C. & DiClemente, C.C.  (1994).  Changing for good.  New York:  Morrow.  Released in paperback by Avon, 1995.  (Hungarian 2009, Polish 2008, Hebrew 2006, Japanese 2005).  ISBN: 0-380-72572-X.

Prochaska, J.O. and DiClemente, C.C. (1984).  The transtheoretical approach:  Crossing the traditional boundaries of therapy.  Melbourne, Florida:  Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN: 13: 978-0894648489.

80+ Book Chapters

Prochaska, J.J., Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2018).  Building a science for multiple-risk behavior change.  M.E. Hilliard (Ed.)  The Handbook of Health Behavior Change Fourth Edition, Fifth Edition, Springer Publishing Company, LLC.  New York, NY.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2018).  Digitally Assisted Interventions for the treatment adn prevention of risky behaviors in adults.  In Faust, D. & Faust, K.  (Eds.).  Digital Technologies and Mental Health.  Oxford University Press.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2018). Enhancing motivation to change.  In Fiellin, D., Miller, S. & Saitz, R., (Eds.).  The ASAM Principles of Addiction Medicine (Sixth edition, Chapter 63).

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2018). Prevention of Illness and healthy promotion intervention. In T. Hadjistavropoulos & H.D. Hadjistavropoulos (Eds.) Fundamentals of Health Psychology. Ontario, Canada: Oxford University Press

Mundorf, N., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Paiva,A.L., & Rubinoff, P. (2018). Resilience and Thriving in spite of Disasters: A Stages of Change Approach. in A. Fekete & F. Fiedrich (Eds.). Urban Disaster, Resilience and Security.  Springer International Publishing.  Chapter 22, p. 383-394.  doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-68606-6

Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2017). Transtheoretical model. In M.P. O’Donnell (Ed.), Health Promotion in the workplace: Improving awareness, enhancing motivation, building skills and creating opportunity (5th ed., pp. 303–323), Troy, MI: Art & Science of Health Promotion Institute.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2016).  Methodological challenges in developing preventive health intervention for mental health and aging.  Lavretsky, H. Sajatovic, M. and Reynolds, C. (Eds.).  In Complementary and Integrative Therapies for Mental Health and Aging.  Oxford University Press

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2016).  Stages of change in couple and family therapy.  In Lebow, J.,  et al.  Encyclopedia of Couple and Family Therapy.  Springer International Publishing.

Prochaska, J.O. (2016). Staging: A Revolution in changing health risk behaviors. In Sternberg (Ed). Scientists Making a Difference: The greatest living behavioral and brain scientists talk about their most important contributions. Cambridge University Press.

Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J. M. (2016). Behavior Change. In C. Heverling & T. Reilly (Eds.), Population health creating a culture of wellness, second edition , Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. 978-1-284-08630-0(pbk)

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2015). Prevention of illness and health promotion intervention. In: Thomas Hadjistavropoulos and Heather Hadjistavropoulos (Eds). Fundamentals of Health Psychology, (54-68). Oxford University Press. Canada.

Prochaska, J.O., Norcross, J.C. & DiClemente, C.C.  (in press).  Applying the stages of change, G. Koocher, J. Norcross & B. Greene (Eds).  Psychologists Desk Reference, (176-181).  Oxford University Press.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (in press).  Self directed change.  In Maddox & Tangney (Eds.) Social Psychological Foundations of Clinical Psychology.  New York:  Guilford Publications.

Prochaska, J.J., Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2013).  Building a science for multiple-risk behavior change.  In S. Shumaker, J. Ockene, K. Riekert (Eds).  The Handbook of Health Behavior Change Fourth Edition, Springer Publishing Company, LLC.  New York, NY.

Prochaska, J.O. (2012). Individual dynamics of addiction: Common pathways to change. In D.L. Long, A.T. Rindskopf, & K.J. Sher (Eds.), APA addiction syndrome handbook, Vol. 1: Foundations, influences and expressions of addiction (pp. 663–680). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2011).  Behavior Change.  In:  C. Heverling &T. Reilly (Eds.), Population Health creating a Culture of Wellness, Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.  ISBN: 978-0763780432.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2011).  High Impact paradigms for changing behavior to enhance health productivity and well-being.  In J. Brown & D.B. Nash (Eds.)  Disease Management and Wellness in the Post-Reform Era, (pp. 61-710).  Washington, DC.:  Atlantic Information Services, Inc.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2011).  Recent finding related to the Transtheoretical Model.  In J. Trafton & W.P. Gordon

Prochaska, J.O.   (2010).  Enhancing Motivation to Change.  In B.B. Wilford, A.W. Graham, & T.K. Schultz (Eds.), Principles of Addiction Medicine (Fourth Edition), 825-838.  Chevy Chase, MD:  American Society of Addiction Medicine. ISBN: 13: 978-0-7817-7477-2.

Prochaska, J.O., Johnson, S.S. & Lee, P. (2009).  The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change.  In:  the handbook of health behavior change, edited by S. Schumaker, Schorn, E., Ockenes, J. and Richert, K.  (third edition), Springer. 59-83.  ISBN: 0-8261-1545-4, 978-0-8261-1545-4.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2009).  Change (stage of).  In S.J. Lopez, (Ed.).  The Encyclopedia of Positive Psycholoty.  Oxofr, UK and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C. & Evers, K.  (2009).  The Transtheoretical Model and stages of change.  In K. Glanz, F.M. Lewis and B.K. Rimer (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice (Fourth Edition).  Jossey-Bass Publications, Inc.  ISBN: 0-7879-9614-9, 978-0-7879-9614-7.

Prochaska,J.M. & Prochaska, J.O. (2009). Transtheoretical model guidelines for families with child abuse and neglect.In A.R. Roberts (Ed.), 641-646.  Second Edition Social Workers’ Desk reference.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press.  ISBN: 978-019536937-3.

Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O., Evers, K.E., & Tsuda, A. (2009).  Transtheoretical-based expert systems guiding youth to have healthier, less stressful lives.  In Tsuda, A., Ohya, Y., & Tanno, Y. (Eds.), Clinical Stress Psychology, Tokyo: University of Tokyo.  (written in Japanese).

 Prochaska, J.O.   (2008). New Paradigms for Inclusive Health Care:  Toward Individual Patient and Population Health.  In B.C. Wallace (Ed.), Toward Equity in Health:  A New Global Approach to Health Disparities.  New York, New York:  Springer Publishing Company. .  ISBN: 0-8261-0313-8, 978-0-8261-0313-0.

 Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2008).  High-impact paradigms for changing behaviors to enhance health, productivity and well-being.  In J. Brown & D.B. Nash (Eds.).  The Next Generation of Disease Management:  2009 and beyond, (pp. 35-43).  Washington, DC: Atlantic Information Services, Inc.

 Prochaska, J.O.  & Prochaska, J.M. (2008).  Termination at each stage of change.  In M. O’Donnell (Ed.), 147-162.  A Clinician’s Guide to the Termination of Psychotherapy. New York, New York: Burnner-Routlidge, Taylor & Francis.  ISBN:  13: 978-0-415-95436-5.

 Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O., Evers, K.E., & Tsuda, A. (2007).  A new stress management.  In Tsuda, A.& Prochaska, J.O., (Eds.), Modern Esprit, Special Issue for New Practice of Stress Management, Tokyo: Shibundo.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (2007).  High-Impact Paradigms for the Treatment of Addiction.  In J.E. Henningfield, P.B. Santora, & W.K. Bi kel (Eds.), Addiction Treatment:  Science and Policy for the Twenty-first Century.  ISBN:  978-080-1886690.

 Prochaska, J.O., Johnson, S, & Lee, P.  (2007).  The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change.  In S.A. Shumaker, E.B. Schron, J.K. Okene, & W.L. McBee (Eds.), The Handbook of Health Behavior Change (Third Edition).  New York:  Springer Publishing Company.  ISBN:  978-0-8261-1545-4.

Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C. & Evers, K.  (2007).  The Transtheoretical Model and stages of change.  In K. Glanz, F.M. Lewis and B.K. Rimer (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice (Fourth Edition).  Jossey-Bass Publications, Inc.  ISBN:  978-0787957155.

Redding, C.A., Velicer, W.F., Evers, K.E., & Prochaska, J.O. (2007).  Preventing Postpartum Relapse: Some New Approaches to Meeting the Challenge.  In W. Hannover, K. Roske, & J. Rene Thyrian (Eds.), Smoking Cessation and Relapse Prevention in Women Post Partum.  Lengerich, Germany: PABST Science Publishers.

Prochaska, J.O.  & Prochaska, J.M. (2005).  Helping patients change unhealthy behaviors.  In S. Quinn (Ed.). Textbook of Functional Medicine, Gig Harbor, WA:  Institute for Functional Medicine.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (2005).  An update on maximum impact practices from a transtheoretical approach.  In Best Practices in the Behavioral Management of Chronic Disease, Volume 1, Chapter 1.  Los Altos, CA:  Institute for Disease Management.  ISBN:  978-1932745153.

Prochaska, J.M., Levesque, D.A., & Prochaska, J.O.  (2005). Skills for mastering change in the workplace. In Kumar Prashant (Ed.), ICFAI Books.  Hyderabad, India.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (2004).  Assessment as intervention within the transtheoretical model. In M.E. Maruish (editor), The Use of Psychological Testing for Treatment Planning and Outcomes Assessment, Third Edition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Prochaska, J.O. (2003). Maximum impact practices from a transtheoretical approach. In J.A. Trafton & W.P. Gordon (eds.), Best practices in the behavioral management of chronic disease. Volume I. Institute for Brain Potential.

Prochaska, J.O.   (2003).  Enhancing Motivation  to Change.  In B.B. Wilford, A.W. Graham, & T.K. Schultz (Eds.), Principles of Addiction Medicine (Third Edition), 825-838.  Chevy Chase, MD:  American Society of Addiction Medicine.

Prochaska, J.O.   (2003).  Smoking Cessation Strategies:  Targeting Populations.  In V.T. DeVita, S. Hellman, & S.A. Rosenberg (Eds.), Progress in Oncology 2002, 313-327.  Sudsbury, MA:  Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Prochaska, J.O.   (2002).  Staging:  A revolution in therapeutic relating.  In J. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy Relationships that Work. New York: Oxford University Press.

 Prochaska J.O.  (2002).  Brief Therapy as a Growth Industry.  In J.F. Zeig, Brief Therapy:  Lasting Impressions.  Phoenix, AZ: The Milton H. Erickson Foundation Press.

Prochaska J.O.  (2002). Health and Behavior. In B.A. DeBuono and H. Tilson (Eds.) Advancing Health Populations: The Pfizer Guide to Careers in Public Health. New York, NY:  DeVries Public Relations.

 Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C.  (2002).  Transtheoretical Therapy. In F.W. Kaslow (Editor-In-Chief), and J. Lebow (Volume Editor), Comprehensive Handbook of Psychotherapy, Vol. 4, Integrative/Eclectic.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Prochaska, J.O. & Levesque, D.  (2002).  Enhancing motivation of offenders at each stage of change & phase of therapy.  (pp, 57-73), In M. McMurran (Ed.),  Motivating Offenders to Change:  A Guide to Enhancing Engagement in Therapy. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Velicer, W.F., Botelho, R., Prochaska, J.O. & Skinner, H.  (2002).  Computer Systems that Motivate Behavioral Change.  In Skinner, H.A., Promoting Health Through Organizational Change.  San Francisco:  Benjamin Cummings, Pearson Education, Inc.

 Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2002).  Transtheoretical Model Guidelines for Families with Child Abuse and Neglect.  In A.R. Roberts & G.J. Greene (Eds.), Social Workers’ Desk Reference.  New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

 Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C. & Evers, K.  (2002).  The Transtheoretical Model and stages of change.  In K. Glanz, F.M. Lewis and B.K. Rimer (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice (3rd Edition).  Jossey-Bass Publications, Inc.

Prochaska, J.O.  (2000).  With Science and Service We can Survive and Thrive.  In S. Stoldz & L. McCullough (Eds.), Reconciling Empirical Knowledge and Clinical Experience. Washington, DC;  American Psychological Association.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1999).  Change at Differing Stages.  In C.R. Snyder and R.E. Ingram (Eds.), Handbook of Psychological Change.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1999).  How do people change, and how can we change to help many more people?  In M.A. Hubble, B.L. Duncan & S.D. Miller (Eds.), The Heart and Soul of Change.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association Press.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1999).  Stages of change approach to treating addictions with special focus on DWI Offenders.  In Patricia M. Harris (Ed.), Research to Results:  Effective Community Corrections.  Lanham, Md:  American Correctional Association.

Prochaska, J.O.  & Congdon, K.  (1999).  Behavioral change – Getting started and being successful.  In L.K. Smith, E.S. Froelicher & P.M. Comoss (Eds.), Cardiac Rehabilitation:  A Guide to Practice in the 21stt Century.  New York:  Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Prochaska, J.O.  & DiClemente, C.C. (1999).  Comments, Criteria and Creating Better Models.  In W.R. Miller and N. Heath (Eds.), Treating Addictive Behaviors (2nd Edition).  New York and London:  Plenum Press.

DiClemente, C.C. &  Prochaska, J.O.  (1999).  Toward a Comprehensive Transtheoretical Model of change:  Stages of change and Addictive Behaviors. In W.R. Miller and N.Health (Eds.), Treating Addictive Behaviors (2nd Edition).  New York and London:  Plenum Press.

Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., Rossi, S.R., Velicer, W.F. & Prochaska, J.O. (1999).  Health behavior models.  In Hyner, G.C., Peterson, K.W., Travis, J.W., Dewey, J.E., Foerster, J.J., & Framer, E.M. (Eds.), SPM Handbook of Health Assessment Tools.  Pittsburgh, PA: The Society of Prospective Medicine & The Institute for Health and Productivity Management.

Prochaska, J.O. DiClemente, C.C., & Norcross, J.C. (1998).  Stages of Change:  Prescriptive Guidelines for Behavioral Medicine and Psychotherapy.  In G.P. Koocher, J.C. Norcross, & S.S. Hill III (Eds.), Psychologists’ Desk Reference.  New York, Oxford:  Oxford University Press.

Prochaska, J.O. Johnson, S, & Lee, P.  (1998).  The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change.  In S.A. Shumaker, E.B. Schron, J.K. Okene, & W.L. McBee (Eds.), The Handbook of Health Behavior Change (Second Edition).  New York:  Springer Publishing Company.

Velicer, W.F., Pallonen, U.E. & Prochaska, J.O.   (1998).  Expertensysteme zur Tabakpraevention und Rauchentwoehnung im Jugendalter.  Ersiheint in:  Kolip, P.  (Hg.). Programme gegen sucht.  Intenalionale Lnedvec auc sucht praevenlion im jugendalte. Weinheim: JUVENIA.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1997).  A Revolution in Health Promotion:  Smoking Cessation as a Case Study.  In R. J. Resnick and R. H. Rozensky (Eds.), Health Psychology Through the LifeSpan:  Practice and Research Opportunities.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association Press.

 Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C. & Evers, K.  (1997).  The Transtheoretical Model and stages of change.  In K. Glanz, F.M. Lewis and B.K. Rimer (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice (2nd Edition).  Jossey-Bass Publications, Inc.

Prochaska, J.O. (1995).  Preparation for cessation.  In A. Ashman (ed.) Substance Abuse:  Ross Roundtable on Critical Issues in Family Medicine.  Columbus O.  Ross Labs.

Prochaska, J.O., & Marcus B.H.  (1995).  The transtheoretical model:  Applications to exercise.  In R. Dishman (Ed.), Exercise Adherence II.  Illinois:  Human Kinetics Press.

Norcross, J.C., Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C.  (1995).  The stages and processes of weight control:  Two replications.  In T. VanItallie & A. Simopoulos (Eds.), Obesity.  Philadelphia:  Charles Press.

Rossi, J.S., Rossi, S.R., Velicer, W.F., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1995).  Motivational readiness to control weight.  In D.B.  Allison (Ed.), Handbook of assessment methods for eating behaviors and weight-related problems:  Measures, theory, and research.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1994).  An eclectic and integrative approach:  Transtheoretical Therapy.  In A. Gurman & S. Messer (Eds.), Theories of psychotherapy.

 Grimley, D., Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Blais, L.M.., & DiClemente, C.C.  (1994).  The Transtheoretical Model of Change. In T.M. Brinthaupt & R.P. Lipka (Eds.),Changing the Self:  Philosophies, Techniques, and Experiences.   Albany, New York:  SUNY Press.

Velicer, W.F., Rossi, J.S., Ruggiero, L., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1994).  Minimal interventions appropriate for an entire population of smokers.  In R. Richmond (Ed.), Interventions for smokers:  An international perspective.  New York, NY:  Williams & Wilkins.

Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (1993).  A transtheoretical model of change for addictive behaviors.  In M. Casas & M. Gossop (Eds.), Recaidaz y Prevencion de Recaidor, pp. 85-136.  Sitges, Spain: Citran.

Prochaksa, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C.  (1992).  The transtheoretical approach.  In J. Norcross & M. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration.  New York:  Brunner/Mazel, 300-334.

Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C. (1992). Stages of change in the modification of problem behaviors. In M. Hersen, R.M. Eisler, & P.M. Miller (Eds.), Progress on behavior modification. Sycamore, IL:  Sycamore Press.

 Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., & Norcross, J.C.  (1992).  In search of the structure of behavior change.  In J.D. Fisher, J.M. Chensky, & A. Nadler, (Eds.).  Initiating Self-Changes:  Social Psychological and Clinical Perspectives.  New York:  Springer-Verlag

 Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., & DiClemente, C.C.  (1990).  Assessing smoking cessation. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.  Health Benefits of Quitting Smoking.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Health, Office on Smoking and Health.  DHHS Publication No.  (CDC) 90-8416, 1990.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1989).  What causes people to change from unhealthy to health enhancing behavior?  In C. C. Cummings & J.D. Floyd (Eds.), Human behavior and cancer risk reduction:  Overview and report of a conference on unmet research needs (pp. 30-34).  Atlanta, GA:  American Cancer Society.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1986).  From prescription to integration.  In W. Dryden (Ed.), Key cases in psychotherapy.  London:  Croom‑Helm, Ltd.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1986).  Commentary:  Making more use of our models.  In J. Norcross (Ed.).  Casebook of eclectic psychotherapy.  New York:  Brunner/Mazel.

Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C.  (1986).  Toward a comprehensive model of change.  In W. Miller and N. Heather (Eds.), Addictive behaviors:  Processes of Change.  New York:  Plenum Press, pp. 3-28.

 Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C.  (1986).  The transtheoretical appoach.  In J. Norcross (Ed.), Handbook of eclectic psychotherapy.  New York:  Brunner/Mazel.

 Prochaska, J.O. and DiClemente, C.C.  (1985).  Common processes of change in smoking, weight control and psychological distress.  In S. Shiffman and T. Wills (Eds.) Coping and substance use:  A conceptual framework.  New York:  Academic Press.

DiClemente, C.C. and Prochaska, J.O.  (1985).  Processes and stages of change: Coping and competence in smoking behavior change. In S. Shiffman and T. Wills (Eds.) Coping and substance use: A conceptual  framework.  New York: Academic Press.

Prochaska, J.O. and DiClemente, C.C.  (1984).  Self change processes, self efficacy and decisional balance across five stages of smoking cessation.  In Advances in cancer control‑1983.  New York, NY:  Alan R. Liss, Inc.

Schiff, Robert, Smith, Nelson, and Prochaska, James O.  (1979).  Extinction of avoidance in rats as a function of duration and number of blocked trials.  In Tarpy, Roger M. and Mayer, Richard E. (Eds.), Readings in learning and memory.  Glenview, Illinois:  Scott, Foresman and Co.

Prochaska, James O., Smith, Nelson, Marzilli, Robert, Colby, Jack and Donovan, William. (1978).  Remote‑control aversive stimulation in the control of head‑banging in a retarded child.  In Anderson, Robert M. (Ed.), Educating the severely and profoundly retarded, University Park Press.

 Prochaska, James O. and Prochaska, Janice M. (1978).  Twentieth Century trends in marriage and marital therapy.  In Paolino, T. and McCrady, B. (Eds.), Marriage and marital therapy:  Three perspectives.  New York:  Brunner/Mazel.

Heckerman, Carol and Prochaska, James O.  (1977).  Evaluation of weight reduction procedures in a health maintenance organization.  Chapter in Stuart, R. (Ed.), Behavioral self management, Brunner‑Mazel:  New York.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1973).  Self‑perceptions and parents’ perceptions of personality characteristics of marijuana users and non‑users.  Chapter in Rydell, L. (Ed.), Student Drug Use:  A Health Problem or a Socio‑Moral Problem.  Published Spring 1973 by  Rhode Island Governor’s Committee on Drug Use.

300+ Articles

Saul, S.F., Prochaska, J.O., Paiva, A.L. & Blissmer, B.  (in press).  Predictors of successful behavior change within multiple affective risk behaviors.  Journal of Health Promotion.

Blaney, C.L., Redding, C.A., Paiva, A.L., Rossi, J.S., Prochaska, J.O., Blissmer, B., Burditt, C.T., Nash, J.M. & bayley, K.D.  (2018).  Integrated Primary Care readiness and behaviors scale:  development and validation in behavioral health professionals.  Families, Systems & Health, 36(1), 97-107.

Edwards-Steward, A., Prochaska, J.O., Smolenski, D.J., Saul, S.F. & Reger, G.M.  (2017).  Self-identified problem behaviors and stages of change among soldiers.  Military Behavioral Health, 5(3), 203-207, doi:  10.1080/21635781.2016.1272023.

Horiuchi, S., Tsuda, A., Hisanori, K., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O.  (2017).  Sustainable transportation pros, cons, and self-efficacy as predictors of 6-month stage transition in a Chinese sample.  Journal of Transportation and Health.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2017.05.363.

Fernandez, A.C., Amoyal, N. Paiva, A.L. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2016).  Motivation of HPV vaccination among young adult men:  validation of TTM decisional balance and self-efficacy constructs.  American Journal of Health Promotion, 30(3), 163-171. 2015 Mar 25. [Epub ahead of print].  PMID 25806567.

Lipschitz, J.M., Paiva, A.L., Redding, C.A., Levesque, D., Rossi, J.S., Weisberg, R.B., & Prochaska, J.O.  (2016).  Development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of decisional baance and self-efficacy measures for managing anxiety in a national sample of clinically anxious adults. American Journal of Health Promotion. doi:  10.1177/0890117116669493. 2016 Sep 26. [Epub ahead of print].  PMID 27670270.

Yusufov, M., Paiva, A. L., Redding, C. A., Lipschitz, J. M., Gokbayrak, N. S., Greene, G. W., Rossi, J. S., Blissmer, B., Velicer, W. F., Prochaska, J. O.  (2016).  Fat Reduction Efforts: A 24-Month Longitudinal Comparison of a Large Sample of Maintainers, Relapsers, and Non-Changers.  Journal of Health Promotion Practice.  doi:10.1177/1524839915606423

Yusufov, M., Prochaska, J.O., Paiva, A.L., Rossi, J.S., Blissmer, B., Redding, C.A. & Velicer, W. (2016). Baseline predictors of singular action among participants with multiple health behavior risks. American Journal lf Health Promotion, 30(5), 365-373.

Yusufov, M., Paiva, A. L., Redding, C.A., Lipschitz, J.M., Gokbayrak, N.A., Green, G. W., Rossi, J.S., Blissmer, V., Welicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O. (2016). Fat Reduction efforts: A 24-Month Longitudinal Comparison of a Large Sample of Maintainers, Relapsers, and Non-changers. Journal of Health Promotion Practice.

Fernandez, A.C., Amoyal, N., Paiva, A.L. & Prochaska, J.O. (2016). Motivation of HPV vaccination among young adult men: validation of TTM decisional balance and self-efficacy constructs. American Journal of Health Promotion, 30(3), 163-171. 2015 Mar 25 [Epub ahead of print]

Brick, L.A.D., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., & Prochaska, J.O. (2015). Extending theory-based quantitative predictions to new health behaviors. International Journal of Behavioral Medicince.

Gokbayrak, N.S., Paiva, A.L., Blissmer, B.J., & Prochaska, J.O. (2015). Predictors of relapse among smokers: transtheoretical effort variables, demographic, and smoking severity. Journal of Addictive Behaviors, 42 178-179

Lipschitz, J.M., Paiva, A.L., Redding, C.A., Yusufov, M., Rossi J.S., Johnson, S.S., Blissmer, B., Gokbayrak, N.S., Velicer, W.F., & Prochaska, J.O. (2015). Transtheoretical principles and processes for adopting physical activity: A longitudinal 24-month comparison of maintainers, relapsers, and non-changers. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology.

Yusufov, M., Rossi, J.S., Redding C.A., Yin, H., Paiva, A., Velicer, W.F., Greene, G.W., Blissmer, B., Robbins, M.L., & Prochaska, J.O. (2015). Transtheoretical model constructs’ Longitudinal prediction of sun protection over 24 months. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. (published online July 11, 2015).

Evers, K.E., Castle, P.H., Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2014). Examining relationships between multiple health risk behaviors, well-being, and productivity. Psychological Reports: mental & Physical Health, 114,3, 843-853.

Paiva, A.L., Lipschitz, J.M., Fernandez, A.C., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O. (2014). Evaluation of the acceptability and feasibility of a computer-tailored intervention to increase human papillomavirus vaccination among young adult women. Journal of American College Health, 62:1, 32-38.

Redding, C.A., Mundorf, N., Kobayashi, H., Brick, L., Horiuchi, S., Paiva, A.L., & Prochaska, J.O. (2014). Sustainable transportation stage of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy scale development and validation in two university samples. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 1-13.

Fernandez, A.C., Paiva, A.L., Lipschitz, J.M., Larson, H.E., Amoyal, N., Balney, C.L., Sillice, M.A., Redding, C.A. & Prochaska, J.O. (2013). Disease prevention without relapse: processes of change for HPV vaccination. Journal of Preventive Medicine

Johnson S.S, Paiva A.L., Mauriello L, Prochaska J.O., Redding C.A. & Velicer W.F. (2013). Coaction in multiple behavior change interventions: Consistency across multiple studies on weight management & obesity prevention. Health Psychology, 33, 475-480.

Russell, B., Maher, G., Prochaska, J.O., Johnson, S.S. (2012). Strategic approaches to continuing medical education: applying the Transtheoretical model and diffusion of innovation theory. CE Measure.

Fernandez, A.C., Paiva, A.L., Lipschitz, J.M., Larson, H.E., Amoyal, N., Balney, C.L., Sillice, M.A., Redding, C.A. & Prochaska, J.O.  (in press).  Disease prevention without relapse: processes of change for HPV vaccination.  Journal of Preventive Medicine

 Johnson S.S, Paiva A.L., Mauriello L, Prochaska J.O., Redding C.A. & Velicer W.F.  (2013).  Coaction in multiple behavior change interventions: Consistency across multiple studies on weight management & obesity prevention.  Health Psychology, 33, 475-480.

 Russell, B., Maher, G., Prochaska, J.O., Johnson, S.S.  (in press).  Strategic approaches to continuing medical education: applying the Transtheoretical model and diffusion of innovation theory.  CE Measure.

 Prochaska, J.O., Norcross, J.C. & DiClemente.  (2013).  Applying the stages of change.  Psychotherapy in Austrailia, 19(2), 10-15.  PMID: 9155212.

Greene, G.W., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Paiva, A., Rossi, J.S., Velicer, W.F., Blissmer, B. & Robbins, M.L.  (2013).  Baseline Transtheoretical and dietary behavioral predictors of dietary fat moderation over 12 and 24 months.  Eating Behaviors, 14, 255-262.  Doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.01.014.

Levesque, D.A., Ciavatta, M.M., Castle, P.H., Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2013).  Evaluation of a stage-based, computer-tailored adjunct to usual care for domestic violence offenders.  Psychology Violence, 2(4):368-684.  PMID: 23412627.

Lipschitz, J.M., Fernandez, A.C., Larson, H.E., Blaney, C.L., Meier, K.S., Redding, C.A., Prochaska J.O. & Paiva, A.L.  (2013).  Validation of decisional balance and self-efficacy measures for HPV vaccination in college Women.  American Journal of Health Promotion, 27(5), 299-307.  PMID: 23402229.

Santiago-Rivas, M., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Prochaska J.O. & Paiva A.L.  (2013).  Outcomes of cluster profiles within stages of change for sun protection behavior.  Psychology of Health Medicine, Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print].  PMID: 23347424.

Velicer, W. F., Brick, L.A., Fave, J.L. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2013)  Testing 40 predictions from the transtheoretical model again, with confidence.  Multivariate Behavioral Research.  48:2, 220-240.

Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Paiva, A.L., Mauriello, L.M., Blissmer, B., Oatley, K., Meier, K.S., Babbin, S.F., McGee, H., Prochaska, J.O., Burditt, C. & Fernandez, A.C.  (2013).  Multiple behavior interventions to prevent substance abuse and increase energy balance behaviors in middle school students.  Translational Behavioral Medicine: Practice, Policy and Research, 3(1), 82-93.  DOI 10.1007/S13142-013-0197-0.

 Yin, H-Q, Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., Redding, C.A., Paiva, A.L., Blissmer, B., Velicer, W.F., Johnson, S.S. & Kobayashi, H.  (2013).  Treatment-enhances paired action contributes substantially to change across multiple health behaviors:  Secondary analysis of five randomized trials.  Translational Behavioral Medicine, 3(1), 62-71.  Doi:10.1007/513142-013-0193-4.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (2012).  A discussion with James O. Prochaska, Ph.D. interview by Paul E. Terry.  American Journal of Health Promotion, May-June, 26, 5:taph2-3, tahp5-6.  PMID: 22548435.

 Prochaska, J.O., Evers, K.E., Castle, P.H., Johnson, J.L., Prochaska, J.M., Rula, E.Y., Coberley, C. & Pope, J.E.  (2012).  Enhancing multiple domains of well-being by decreasing multiple health risk behaviors: a randomized Clinical Trial.  Population Health Management, 15 1-11 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.  PMID 22352379.

Evers, K.E., Paiva, A.L., Johnson, J.L., Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M., Padula, J., & Gökbayrak, N.S. (2012). Results of a transtheoretical model-based alcohol, tobacco and other drug intervention in middle schools. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 1009–1018.  PMID: 22591949.

Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.O, Castle, P.H., Johsnon, J.L., Prochaska, J.M., Harrison, P., Rula, E.Y., Coberley, C. & Pope, J.E.  (2012).  Development of an individual well-being scores assessment.  Psychology of Well-Being: Theory, Research and Practice, 2(2).  doi:10.1186/2211-1522-2-2.

Hoeppner, B., Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., Pallonen, U.E., Prochaska, J.O. & Velicer, W.F.  (2012).  Factor Structure of decisional balance and temptations scales for smoking:  cross validation in urban female Africian-american adolescents.  International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 19, 217-227.  PMID 212794493.

Paiva, A.L. Prochaska, J.O., Yin, H.Q., Rossi, J.S., Redding, C.A., Blissmer, B., Robbins, M.L., Velicer, W.F., Lipschitz, J., Amoyal, N., Babbin, S.F., Blaney, C.L., Sillice, M.A., Fernandez, A., McGee, H., & Horiuchi, S.  (2012).  Treated individuals who progress to action or maintenance for one behavior are more likely to make similar progress on another behavior:  Coaction results of a pooled data analysis of three trials.  Preventive Medicine, 54, 331-334.  PMID  22425936.

Santiago-Rivas, M., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O. & Paiva, A.L.  (2012).  Cluster subtypes within the precomtemplation stage of change for sun protection behavior.  Psychology, Health & Medicine, 17, 311-322.  PMID 22175661.

Velicer, W.F., Redding, C., Paiva, A., Meier, K., Oatley, K., Babbin, S., McGee, H., Prochaska, J.O. & Mauriello, L.  (2012).  Project Best: Tailored Interventions for Multiple Risk Factor Prevention for Adolescents.  International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 19, (suppl 1), S308.

Prochaska, J.O., Evers, K.E., Johnson, J.L., Castle, P.H., Prochaska, J.M., Sears, L.E., Rula, E.Y., & Pope, J.E. (2011).  The well-being assessment for productivity: A well-being approach to presenteeismJournal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 53(7), 735–742.  PMID  21691220.

Levesque, D.A., Van Marter, D.F., Schneider, R.J., Bauer, M.R., Goldberg, D.N., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M.  (2011).  Randomized trial of computer-tailored intervention for patients with depression.  American Journal of Health Promotion, 26(2), 77-89.  PMID 22040388.

Levesque, D.A., Van Marter, D.F., Green, R.N., Prochaska, J.M., Castle, P.H., Prochaska, J.O.  (2011).  Assessing adolescents’ readiness to use health relationship skills for dating violence prevention: measure development and validation.  Family & Intimate Partner Violence Quarterly, 3(4), 319-343.

Norcross, J.C., Krebs, P.M., & Prochaska, J.O. (2011). Stages of change. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 143–154.  PMID 21157930.

Prochaska, J.J. & Prochaska, J.O. (2011). A review of multiple health behavior change interventions for primary prevention. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5(3), 208-211.  PMCID:2288583, NHMCID: 43398.

Redding C.A., Prochaska J.O., Paiva A., Rossi J.S., Velicer W.F., Blissmer B., Greene G.W., Robbins M.L. & Sun X. (2011/Epub 2011 Mar 30). Baseline Stage, Severity and Effort Effects Differentiate Stable Smokers from Maintainers and Relapsers.  Substance Use and Misuse, 46(13), 1664-74.  PMID 21449711.

Stein, L.A.R., Clair, M., Lebeau, R., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S. & Swift, J.  (2011 Mar 28. [Epub ahead of print).  Facilitating grant proposal-writing in health behaviors for university faculty:  A descriptive study.  Health Promotion Practice.  PMID:  21444921.

Prochaska, J.O.  (2010).  Herzog’s (2008) criteria for evaluating TTM.  Health Psychology, 29, 102.  PMID: 20063942.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (2010).  Why limit employers to low-impact smoking cessation programs comments on “Best Practice for Smoking Cessation.”  American Journal of Health Promotion, 24(3), TAHP-12.   PMID: 20073392.

Blissmer, B., Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., Greene, G.W., Paiva, A. & Robbins, M.  (2010).  Common factors predicting long-term changes in multiple health behaviors.  Journal of Health Psychology, 15(2), 205-214.  PMID 20207664.  (NIHMSID: NIHMS233580).

Di Noia, J. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2010).  Dietary stages of change and decisional balance:  A meta-analytic review.  American Journal of Health Behavior, 34(5), 618-632.  PMID: 20524891.

Di Noia, J. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2010).  Mediating variables in a transtheoretical model dietary intervention program.  Health Education & Behavior, 37(5), 720-3714.  PMID:  19494057.

Krebs, P., Prochaska, J.O., & Rossi, J.S.  (2010).  A meta-analysis of computer-tailored interventions for health behavior change.  Preventive Medicine, 51, 214-221.  PMID 20558196.

Linden, A., Butterworth, S.W. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2010).  Motivational interviewing-based health coaching as a chronic care intervention.  Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practices, 16, 179-179.  PMID: 20367828.

Prochaska, J.J., Nigg, C.R., Spring, B., Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O.  (2010).  The benefits and challenges of multiple health behavior change in research and in practice.  Preventative Medicine, 50(1-2), 26-29. (PMCID: PMC2813890).

Santiago-Rivas, M., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Paiva, A.L.  (2010).  Cluster subtypes within the preparation stage of change for sun protection behavior.  Applied Psychology: Health and Well Being, 2, 89-104.  PMID:23347424.

Johnson, S. S., Cummins, C.O., Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2009).  Proactive health consumerism:  an important new tool for worksite health promotion.  American Journal of Health Promotion, 23,(6) suppl. 1-8  PMID: 19601487.

Wright, J.A., Velicer, W.F. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2009).  Testing the predictive power of the Transtheoretical model of behavior change applied to dietary fat intake.  Health Education Research, 24(2), 224-236.  PMID: 18400785.

Prochaska, J.O.  (2008)  Decision Making in the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change.  Medical Decision Making:  an International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making, 28, 845-849. (NIHMSID: NIHMS81685).

 Prochaska, J.O.  (2008).  Multiple health behavior research represents the future of preventive medicine.  Preventive Medicine, 46,281.285.  PMID: 18319100.

 Prochaska, J.O., Butterworth, S. Redding, C., Burden, V., Perrin, N., Leo, M., (2008).  Initial efficacy of MI, TTM Tailoring and HRI’s with Multiple Behaviors for Employee Health Promotion.  Preventive Medicine, 45, 226-231  PMID: 18155287.

Prochaska, J.O. Wright, J.A., & Velicer, W.F.  (2008).  Evaluating theories of health behavior change: A hierarchy of criteria applied to the transtheroetical model.  Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57 (4), 561-588.  Doi: 10.1111/j. 1454-0597.2008.00345x.

Di Noia, J., Contento, I. R., Prochaska, J.O.  (2008).  Computer-Mediated Intervention Tailored on Transtheoretical Model Stages and Processes of Change Increases Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Urban African-American Adolescents.  American Journal of Health Promotion, 22 (5), 336-341.  PMID: 18517094.

Johnson, S.S., Paiva, A., Cummins, C.O., Johnson, J.L., Dyment, S.J., Wright, J.A., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M., & Sherman, K.  (2008).  Transtheoretical Model-based Multiple Behavior Intervention for Weight Management Effectiveness on a Population Basis.  Preventive Medicine, 46, 238-246. (PMCID: PMC2327253).

Levesque, D.A., Driskell, M.M., Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O.  (2008). Acceptibility of a stage-matched expert system intervention for domestic violence offenders. Violence and Victims, 23(4), 432-435.  PMID: 18788337.

Prochaska, J.J., Velicer, W.F., Nigg, C.R., & Prochaska, J.O. (2008). Methods of quantifying change in multiple risk factor interventions.  Preventive Medicine 46, 260-265. PMCID: PMC2288581.

Velicer, W.F., Cumming, G., Fava, J.L., Rossi, J.S., Prochaska, J.O., Johnson, J.  (2008). Theory Testing Using Quantitative Predictions of Effect Size.  Applied Psychology:  An International Review, 57 (4), 589-608.  DOI: 10.0000/j.1464-0597.2008.00348.x.

Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.O., Van Marter, D.F., Johnson, J.L., Prochaska, J.M.  (2007).  Transtheoretical-based bullying prevention effectiveness trials in middle schools and High schools.  Education Res., 49, 397-414.

Mauriello, L.M., Rossi, J.S., Fava, J.L., Redding, C.A., Robbins, M., Prochaska, J.O., & Meier, K.S. (2007). Assessment of the Pros and Cons of Stress Management Among Adolescents: development and Validation of a Decisional Balance Measure. American Journal of Health Promotion, 22 (2), 140-143.  PMID: 18019890.

Prochaska, J.O., Evers , K.E., Prochaska,J.M., VanMarter, D.,& Johnson, J.L.  (2007). Efficacy and effectiveness trials:  Examples from smoking cessation and bullying prevention. Journal of Health Psychology, 12 (1), 170-178.  PMID: 17158850.

Sun, X. Prochaska, J.O.,Velicer, W.F., & Laforge, R.G. (2007). Transtheoretical principles and processes for quitting smoking: A 24-month comparison of a representative sample of quitters, relapsers, and non-quitters.  Addictive Behaviors, 32, 2707-2726.  PMCID: PMC2080834.

Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Anatchkova, M.D., Fava, J.L, & Prochaska, J.O. (2007). Identifying Cluster Subtypes for the Prevention of Adolescent Smoking Acquisition.  Addictive Behaviors, 32 (2), 228-247.  PMID: 16697533.

Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Sun, X., & Prochaska, J.O. (2007). Demographic variables, smoking variables, and outcome across five studies. Health Psychology, 26(3), 278-287.  PMID: 17500614.

Prochaska, J.O. (2006). Is Social Cognitive Theory becoming a Transtheoretical Model? Addictions, 101 (7), 916-917.  PMID: 16771884.

Prochaska, J.O.(2006). Moving beyond the Transtheoretical Model. Addiction, 101, 768–774.  PMID: 16696617

Anatchkova, M.D., Velicer, W.F., & Prochaska, J.O. (2006). Replication of subtypes for smoking cessation within the precontemplation stage of change. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1101–1115.  PMID: 16139436.

Di Noia, J., Schinke, S. P., Prochaska, J. O., & Contento, I. R. (2006). Application of the Transtheoretical Model to fruit and vegetable consumption among economically disadvantaged Black adolescents: Preliminary findings. American  Journal of Health Promotion, 20 (5), 342-349.   PMCID: PMC1524879.

Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.O., Johnson, J.L., Mauriello, L.M., Padula, J.A., & Prochaska, J.M. (2006). A randomized clinical trial of a population- and transtheoretical model-based stress-management intervention. Health Psychology, 25, 521–529.  PMID: 16846327.

Hoeppner, B.B., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., Prochaska, J.O., Pallonen, U.E., & Meier, K.S. (2006). Psychometric evaluation of the smoking cessation Processes of Change scale in an adolescent sample. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1363–1372.  PMID: 16412579.

Hoffman, A.M., Redding, C.A., Goldberg, D., Anel, D., Prochaska, J.O., Meyer, P.M., Pandey, D.  (2006).  Computer expert systems for African-American smokers in physicians office:  A feasibility study.  Preventive Medicine, 43 (3), 204-211.  PMID: 16780939.

Johnson, S.S., Driskell, M.M., Johnson, J.L., Prochaska, J.M. Zwick, W., Prochaska, J.O.   (2006). Efficacy of a transtheoretical model-based expert system for antihypertensive adherence.  Disease Management, 9 (5), 291-301.  PMID: 17044763.

Johnson, J.L., Evers, K.E., Paiva, A.L., Van Marter, D.F., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M., Mauriello, L.M., Cummins, C.O., & Padula, J.A. (2006). Prevention Profiles: Understanding youth who do not use substances. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1503-1606.  PMID: 16457959.

Johnson, S.S., Driskell, M.M., Johnson, J.L., Dyment, S.J., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M., & Bourne, L. (2006). Transtheoretical model intervention for adherence to lipid-lowering drugs. Disease Management, 9, 102–114.  PMID: 16620196.

Levesque, D.A., Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.M., & Prochaska, J.O.  (2006).  Stage of change for making an informed decision about Medicare health plans. (2006). Health Services Research, 41 (4), 1372-1391.  PMCID: PMC1797092.

Levesque, D.A., Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.M., & Prochaska, J.O.  (2006).  Randomized trial of stage-based interventions for informed Medicare choices. Health Care Financing Review, 27 (4), 25-40.  PMID: 17290656

Mauriello, L.M., Driskell, M.M., Sherman, K.J., Johnson, S.S., Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O. (2006).  Acceptability of a school-based intervention for the prevention of adolescent obesity.  The Journal of School Nursing, 22, (5), 269-284.  PMID: 17172199.

Norman, S.B., Norman, G.J., Rossi, J.S., & Prochaska, J.O.  (2006).  Identifying high- and low-success smoking cessation subgroups using signal detection analysis. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 31–41.  PMID: 15936153.

Prochaska, J.J., Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Deluschi, KI., & Hall, S.M. (2006). Comparing intervention outcomes in smokers with single versus multiple behavior risks. Health Psychology, 25, 380–388.  PMID: 16719610.

Johnson, S.S., Driskell, M.M., Johnson, J., Prochaska, J.M., Zwick, W., & Prochaska, J.O.  (2006). Efficacy of a transtheoretical model-based expert system for antihypertensive adherence.  Disease Management, 9 (5), 291-301.  PMID: 17044763.

Velicer, W.F., & Prochaska, J. O., & Redding, C.A. (2006). Tailored communication for smoking cessation: Past successes and future directions. Drug and Alcohol Review, 25, 49-57.  PMID: 16492577.

Velicer, W.F., Friedman, R., Fava, J.L., Gulliver, S.B., Keller, S., Sun, X., Ramelson, H., & Prochaska, J. O. (2006). Evaluating NRT and stage-based therapies in a population-based effectiveness trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(6), 1162-1172.  PMID: 17154745.

Prochaska, J.O. (2005). Reply to Callaghan: Stages of change and termination from psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42, 247–248.

Prochaska, J.O.  (2005).  Health behavior change research:  A consortium approach to collaborative science.  Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 29,S, 4-6.  PMID: 15921483.

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F, Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., Goldstein, M., DePue, J., Greene, G.W., Rossi, S.R., & Sun, X.  (2005).  Stage-based Expert Systems to Guide A Population of Primary Care Patients to Quit Smoking, Eat Healthier, Prevent Skin Cancer and Receive Regular Mammograms.  Preventive Medicine, 41, 406-416.  PMID: 15896835.

Evers, K.E., Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M.  (2005).  Online Health Behavior and Disease Management Programs: Are we ready for them? Are they ready for us? Journal Medical Internet Research, 7, 1-5.  PMCID: PMC1550656.

Anatchkova, M.D., Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O. (2005 ).  Replication of subtypes for smoking cessation within the contemplation stage of change.  Addictive Behaviors, 30(5), 915-27.  PMID: 15893089.

Prochaska, J.M., Paiva, A.L., Padula, J.A., Prochaska, J.O., Montgomery, J.E., Hageman, L., & Bergart, A.M. (2005). Assessing emotional readiness for adoption using the transtheoretical model. Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 135–152.

Velicer, W.F., Keller, S., Friedman, R.H., Fava, J.L., Gulliver, S.B., Ward, R.M., Ramelson, H., Prochaska, J.O., & Cottrill, S.D. (2005). Comparing participants and nonparticipants recruited for an effectiveness study of nicotine replacement therapy. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 29, 181–191.  PMID: 15946112.

Prochaska, J.O.  (2004).  Population Treatment for Addictions.  Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, pp. 242-246.

Prochaska, J.O., & Velicer, W.F. (2004).  Integrating Population Smoking Cessation Policies and Programs.  Public Health Reports, Journal of the U.S. Public Health Service, (Special Issue, May-June), Vol. 119, p. 244-252.  PMCID: PMC1497634.

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.M., & Johnson, J.  (2004).   Size, Consistency and Stability of Stage Effects for Smoking Cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 207-213.  PMID: 14667431.

Prochaska J.O., Velicer, W.F, Rossi, J.S., Redding, C.A., Greene, G.W., Rossi, S.R., Sun, X.,  Fava, J.L., Laforge, R., & Plummer, B. (2004). Multiple Risk Expert Systems Interventions:  Impact of Simultaneous Stage-Matched Expert Systems for Smoking, High Fat Diet, and Sun Exposure in a Population of Parents.   Health Psychology, 23, 503-516.  PMID: 15367070.

Prochaska, J.M.,Prochaska, J.O., Cohen, F.C., Gomes, S.O., Laforge, R.G., & Eastwood, A.L.  (2004).  The Transtheoretical Model of Change for Multi-level Interventions for alcohol abuse on campus.  Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 47, 34-50.

Velicer, W. F., & Prochaska, J. O. (2004). A Comparison of Four Self-report Smoking Cessation Outcome Measures Addictive Behaviors, 29, 51-60.  PMID: 14667420.

Cummins, C.O., Evers, K.E., Johnson, J.L., Paiva, A., Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, J.M. (2004). Assessing stage of change and informed decision making for internet participation in health promotion and disease management. Managed Care Interface, 17, 27-32.  PMID: 15471108.

Ward, R. M., Velicer, W. F., Rossi, J. S., Fava, J. L., & Prochaska, J. O.  (2004). Factorial Invariance and Internal Consistency for the Decisional Balance Inventory—Short Form.  Addictive Behaviors, 29, 953-958. PMID: 15219341.

Prochaska, J.O.  (2003). Staging: a revolution in helping people change.  Managing Care, 12 (9 Supp), 6-9.  PMID: 14535129.

Prochaska, J.O.  (2003). Treating entire populations for behavior risks for chronic diseases. Homeostasis in Health and Disease, 42, 1-12.

Cummins, C.O., Prochaska, J.O., Driskell, M.M., Evers, K.E., Wright, J.A., Prochaska, J.M., & Velicer, W.F. (2003). Development of review criteria to evaluate health behavior change. Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 55–62.  PMID: 2113900.

Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O., Driskell, M.-M., Cummins, C.O., & Velicer, W.F. (2003). Strengths and weaknesses of health behavior change programs on the Internet. Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 63–70.  PMID: 22113901

Jones, H., Edwards, L., Vallis, T.M., Ruggiero, L., Rossi, S.R, Rossi, J.S., Greene, G., Prochaska, J.O., & Zinman, B. (2003). Changes in diabetes self-care behaviors make a difference in glycemic control: The Diabetes Stages of Change (DiSC) study.  Diabetes Care, 26, 732-737.  PMID: 12610030.

Vallis, M., Ruggiero, L., Greene, G., Jones, H., Zinman, B., Rossi, S., Edwards, L., Rossi, J.S., & Prochaska, J.O. (2003). Stages of change for healthy eating in diabetes: Relation to demographic, eating-related, health care utilization, and psychosocial factors. Diabetes Care, 26, 1468–1474.  PMID: 12716806.

Prochaska, J.O. (2002).Treating entire populations for disease prevention. Japanese Health Psychology, 10,1-17.

Norcross J.C. &  Prochaska, J.O. (2002). Using the stages of change. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 18(11), 5-7.  PMID: 12021030.

Norcross, J.C., Hedges, M., & Prochaska, J.O. (2002).  The face of 2010:  A Delphi poll on the future of psychotherapy.  Professional Psychology:  Research & Practice, 33, 316-322.

Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Prochaska, J.O., Ward, R., Cottrill, S., Ramelson, H., Keller, S., Robins, A.G., & Gulliver, S.  (2002). Evaluating the effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in a defined population.  International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 9 (S1), 285. PMID: 17154745.

Evers, K.E., Johnson, J.L., Padula, J.A., Prochaska, J.M., & Prochaska, J.O.  (2002).  Stress Management development for Transtheoretical constructs of decisional balance and confidence.  Annals of Behavioral Medicine, S24.

 Clark, P.G., Nigg, C.R. Greene, G., Riebe, D., Saunders, S.D. & and member of Senior Project Team including Prochastka, J.O. and CPRC.  (2002).  The study of exercise and nutrition in older Rhode Islanders (SENIOR): Translating theory into research.  Health Education Research, 17, 552-561.  PMID: 12408200.

Prochaska, J.O.  (2001). Treating Entire Populations for Behavior Risks for Cancer. The Cancer Journal, 7 (5). 360-367.  PMID: 11693892.

Prochaska, J.O. & Norcross, J.C.  (2001).  Stages of Change.  Psychotherapy, 38 (4), 443-448.  PMID: 21157930.

 Prochaska, J.O., Velicer W.F., Fava J.L., Rossi J.S., & Tsoh J.Y. (2001). Evaluating a population-based recruitment approach and a stage-based expert system intervention for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 583-602.  PMID: 11456079.

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Fava, J., Ruggiero, L.,  Laforge, R., Rossi, J.S., Johnson, S.S., & Lee, P.A.  (2001).  Counselor and stimulus control enhancements of a stage matched expert system for smokers in a managed care setting.  Preventive Medicine, 32, 23-32.  PMID: 11162323.

Fitzgerald, T.E., Prochaska, J.O., & Pransky, G.S. (2001).  Health Risk Reduction and functional Restoration Following Coronary Revascularization:  A Prospective Investigation Using Dynamic Stage Typology Clustering.  International Journal of Rehabilitation and Health , 5 (2), 99-105.

Jones, H., Ruggiero, L., Edwards, L., Vallis, T.M., Rossi, S., Rossi, J.S., Greene, G., Kelly, K., Prochaska, J.O., & Zinman, B. (2001). Diabetes Stages of Change (DiSC): Evaluation methodology for a new approach to diabetes management. Canadian Journal of Diabetes Care, 25 (2), 97-107.

Levesque, D. A., Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O., Dewart, S.R., Hamby, L.S. & Weeks, W.B.  (2001). Organizational stages and processes of change for continuous quality improvement in healthcare. ConsultingPsychology Journal: Practice and Research,  53(3), 139-153.

Levesque, D.A.,  Prochaska, J.O., Cummins, C.O., Miranda, D. Terrell, S. (2001).  Assessing medicare beneficiaries’ readiness to make informed health plan choices. Health Care Financing Review. 23, 87-104. PMID: 12500365.

O’Connor, P.J., Rush, W.A., Prochaska, J.O., Pronk, N.P. & Boyle, R.G.  (2001). Professional advice and readiness to change behavioral risk factors among members of a managed care organization. American Journal of Managed Care, 7 (2), 125-130.  PMID: 11216330.

Prochaska, J.M., Prochaska, J.O.,  and Levesque, D.A. (2001).  A Transtheoretical Approach to Changing Organizations.  Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 28 (4), 247-261.  PMID: 11577653.

Prochaska, J.M., Levesque, D.A., Prochaska, J.O., Dewart, S.R., & Wing, G.R., (2001). Mastering Change: A Core Competency for Employees.  Journal of Brief Treatment, 1:1, 7-15.

Plummer, B.A., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., Pallonen, U.E., & Meier, K. S. (2001).  Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, and Temptations for Smoking: Measurement and Validation in a Large,School-based Population of Adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 26. 551-571.  PMID: 11456077.

Robbins, M.L., Levesque, D.A., Redding, C.A., Johnson, J.L., Prochaska, J.O. , Rohr, M.S., & Peters, T.G.  (2001)  Assessing Family Members’ Motivational Readiness and Decision Making for consenting to Cadaveric Organ Donation.  Journal of Health Psychology, 6 (5), 523-535.  PMID: 22049451

Rossi, S.R., Greene, G.W., Rossi, J.S., Plummer, B.A., Benisovich, S.V., Keller, S., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Pallonen, U.E., & Meier, K.S. (2001). Validation of decisional balance and temptation measures for dietary fat reduction in a large school-based population of adolescents. Eating Behaviors, 2,1-18. PMID: 15001046.

Sarkin, J.A., Johnson, S.S., Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.J.  (2001).  Applying the Transtheoretical moel to regular moderate exercise in an overweight population:  validation of a stages of change measure.  Preventative Medicine, 33,  462-469.  PMID: 11676588.

Prochaska, J. O.  (2000).  Alternative pragmatic bases for judging models.  Journal of Health Psychology, 5, 157-159.  PMID: 22049004.

Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Fava, J.L., Rossi, J.S., Redding, C.A., Laforge, R.G., & Robbins, M.L.  (2000).  Using the transtheoretical model for population-based approaches to health promotion and disease prevention.  Homeostasis and Disease, 40, 174-195.

Norman, G.J., Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., & Prochaska, J.O. (2000).  Cluster subtypes within stage of change in a representative sample of smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 25, 183-204.  PMID: 10795944.

Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., Rossi, S.R., Velicer, W.F., & Prochaska, J.O.  (2000).  Health Behavior Models.  The International Electronic Journal of Health Education, 3 (Special Issue), 180-192 http://www.iejhe.siu.edu.

Keefe, F.J., Lefebvre, J., Kerns, R.D., Rosenberg, R., Beaupre, P., Prochaska, J.J., Prochaska, J.O., & Caldwell, D.S. (2000). Understanding the adoption of arthritis self-management: Stages of change profiles among arthritis patients. Pain, 87, 303-313.  PMID: 10963910.

Prochaska, J. O. and Prochaska, J.M.  (2000). Stages of change model for smoking prevention and cessation in schools.  British Medical Journal, 320, (7232), 447.  PMCID: PMC1117557.

 Prochaska, J. O. and Prochaska, J.M.  (1999). Why don’t continents move?  Why don’t people change?  Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 9(1), 83-102.

Prochaska, J. O. and Prochaska, J.M.  (1999). Helping cure healthcare systems:  changing minds and behaviors.  Disease Management Health Outcomes, 6, 335-341.

Brogan, M.M., Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (1999).  Predicting termination and continuation status in psychotherapy by using the Transtheoretical Model.  Psychotherapy. 36: 105-113.

Levesque, D.A., Prochaska, J.M., & Prochaska, J.O. (1999).  Stages of change and integrated service delivery.  Consulting Psychology Journal, 51, 226-241.

Skinner, C.S., Campbell, M.K., Rimer, B.K., Curry, S., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1999).  How effective is tailored print communication?  Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 21(4), 290-298.  PMID: 10721435.

Nigg, C. R., Burbank, P. M., Padula,C., Dufresne, R., Rossi, J. S., Velicer, W. F., Laforge, R. G., & Prochaska, J. O.  (1999).  Stages of change across ten health risk behaviors for older adults. The Gerontologist, 39,473-482 .   PMID: 10495586.

Velicer, W.F., & Prochaska, J. O. (1999).  An expert system intervention for smoking cessation.  Patient Education and Counseling, 36, 119-129.  PMID: 10223017.

Harlow, L.L., Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., Velicer, W.F., Snow, M.G., Schnell, D., Galavotti, C., O’Reily, K., & Rhodes, F.  (1999).  Stages of condom use in a high HIV-risk sample.  Psychology and Health, 14, 143-157.

Migneault, J.P., Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J. O., & Stevenson, J. F.  (1999).  Decisional balance for immoderate drinking in college students. Substance Use and Misuse, 34, 1325-1346.  PMID:  10446764.

Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J. O., Pallonen, U.E., Rossi, J.S., Velicer, W.F., Rossi, S.R., Green, G.W., Meier, K.A.., Evers, K.E., Plummer, B.A., & Maddock, J.E.  (1999).  Transtheoretical individualized multimedia expert systems targeting adolescents health behaviors.  Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 6,

144-153.

Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Fava, J., Laforge, R. & Rossi, J.  (1999).  Interactive versus Non-interactive and dose response relationships for stage matched smoking cessation programs in a managed care setting.  Health Psychology, 18, 21-28.  PMID: 9925042.

Ruggiero, L., Rossi, J.S., Prochaska, J.O., Glasgow, R.E., de Groot, M., Dryfoos, J.M., Reed, G.R., Orleans, C.T., Prokhorov, A.V., & Kelly, K. (1999). Smoking and diabetes: Readiness for change and provider advice. Addictive Behaviors, 24, 573-578.  PMID: 10466853.

Norman, G.J., Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L, &  Prochaska, J.O.  (1999).  Dynamic typology clustering within the stages of change for smoking cessation.  Addictive Behaviors, 23, 139-153.  PMID: 9573419.

Velicer, W.F., Norman, G. J., Fava, J. L., & Prochaska, J. O.  (1999).  Testing 40 predictions from the Transtheoretical Model. Addictive Behaviors, 24, 455-469.  PMID: 10466842.

Greene, G.W., Rossi, S.R., Rossi, J.S., Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., & Prochaska, J.O. (1999). Dietary applications of the stages of change model. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99, 673-678.  PMID: 10361528.

Laforge, R.G., Rossi, J.S., Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W.F., Levesque, D.A., & McHorney, C.A.  (1999).  Stage of regular exercise and health-related quality of life.  Preventive Medicine, 28 (4), 349-360.  PMID: 10090864.

Pallonen, U.E, Prochaska, J. O. and Prochaska, J.M.  (1999).  Velicer, W.F., Prokhorov, A.V. & Smith, N.F.  (1998).  Stages of acquisition and cessation for adolescent smoking: An empirical investigation. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 303-324.  PMID: 9668929.

Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Fava, J.L, Norman, G.J., & Redding, C.A.  (1998).  Smoking cessation and stress management: Applications of the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change. Homeostatsis, 5-6,216-233.

Pallonen, U.E, Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., Bellis, J.M., Tsoh, J.Y., Migneault, J.P., Smith, N.F. & Prokhorov, A.V.  (1998).  Computer-based smoking cessation interventions in adolescents:  Description, feasibility, and six-month follow-up findings.  Substance Use & Misuse, 33, 935-965.  PMID: 9548631.

King, D.E., Peragallo-Dittko, V., Polonsky, W.H., Prochaska, J.O., & Vinicor, F.  (1998).  Strategies for improving self-care.  Patient Care, 32 (3), 91-111.

Johnson, S.S., Grimley, D.M., & Prochaska, J. O.  (1998). Prediction of adherence using the Transtheoretical mode:  Implications for pharmacy care practice.  Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 15 (3), 135-148.

 Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W.F.  (1997).  Misinterpretations and misapplications of the transtheoretical model.

American Journal of Health Promotion, 12,(1), 11-12.  PMID: 10170428.

 Prochaska, J. O. (1997).  The Prokhorov/Hudmon/Gritz Article Reviewed. Oncology, 11 (12), 1813-1814.

Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W.F. (1997).  The Transtheoretical Model of health behavior change. (Invited

paper).  American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 38-48.  PMID: 10170434.

Grimley, D.M., Prochaska, G.E., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1997).  Condom use adoption and continuation:  A transtheoretical approach.  Health Education Research:  Theory & Practice, 12, 61-75.

Hall, N., Ottoson, J., Prochaska, J. O., Thompson, J., Wilson, E. Best, J.A., Frankish, J., & O’Connor, B. (1997). Health promotion practice and public health: Challenges for the 1990s.  Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88, (6), 409-415.

Reed, G.R., Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., & Marcus, B.H.. (1997).  What makes a good staging algorithm:  Examples from regular exercise. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 57-66. PMID: 10170436.

Ruggiero, L., Glasgow, R.E., Dryfoos, J.M., Rossi, J.S., Prochaska, J.O., Orleans, C.T., Prokhorov, A.V., Rossi,

S.R., Green, G.W., Reed, G.R., Kelly, K., Chobanian, L., Johnson, S.  (1997).  Diabetes self-management. Diabetes Care, 4, 568-576.  PMID: 9096982

Ruggiero, L., Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., & Prochaska, J. O. (1997).  A stage-matched smoking cessation program for pregnant smokers. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12 (1), 31-33.  PMID: 10170432.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1996).  A stage paradigm for integrating clinical and public health approaches to smoking cessation.  Addictive Behaviors, 21, 721-732.  PMID: 8904938.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1996).  Guidelines for smoking cessation, Vol 1:  For the minority of smokers ready to quit.  Abstracts of Clinical Care Guidelines, 8 (6), 1-10.

 Prochaska, J.O., & Velicer, W.F.  (1996).  On models, methods and premature conclusions.  Addictions, 91, 1281-1283.  PMID: 8854359.

Abrams, D.B., Orleans, C.T., Niaura, R.S., Goldstein, M.G., Prochaska, J.O., & Velicer, W.F.  (1996).  Integrating individual and public health perspectives for treatment of tobacco dependence under managed health care:  A combined stepped-care and matching model.  Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 290-304.  PMID: 18425675.

Grimley, D.M., Prochaska, G.E., Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W.F., Galavotti, C., Cabral, R.J., & Lansky, A. (1996). Cross-validation of measures assessing Decisional Balance and Self-Efficacy for condom use.  American Journal of Health Behavior, 20 (6), 406-416.

Velicer, W.F., Rossi, J.S., Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C. (1996).  A criterion measurement model for health behavior change.  Addictive Behaviors, 21, 555-584.  PMID: 8876758.

Laforge, R., Blais, L., Pallonen, U., Prochaska, J.O., & Betelho, R.  (1996).  Public health and the science of behavior change.  Public Health, 2, 18-25.  PMID: 12291162.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1995).  Why do we behave the way we do?  Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 11, 20-25.  PMID: 7850672.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1995).  Common Problems:  Common Solutions.  Clinical Psychology:  Science and Practice, 2, 101-105.

Prochaska J.O.  (1995).  Disease management needs new paradigms.  Journal of Internal Medicine, 10(8), 472-473.  PMID: 7472707.

 Grimley, D.M., Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., & Prochaska, G.E.  (1995).  Contraceptive and condom use adoption and maintenance:  A stage paradigm approach.  Health Education Quarterly, 22, 20-35.  PMID: 7721599.

Fava, J.L., Velicer, W.f., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1995).  Applying the Transtheoretical Model to a representative sample of smokers.  Addictive Behaviors, 20, 189-203.  PMID: 7484313.

Grimley, D.M., DiClemente, R.J., Prochaska, J.O., & Prochaska, G.E.  (1995).  Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy, STD and HIV:  A promising new approach.  Family Life Educator, 3, 7-15.

Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Prochaska, J.O., Abrams, D.B., Emmons, K.M. & Pierce, J.P.  (1995).  Distribution of smokers by stage in three representative samples.  Preventive Medicine, 24, 401-411.  PMID: 7479632.

Velicer, W.F., Hughes, S.L., Fava, J.L., Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C. (1995).  An empirical typology of subjects within stage on a smoking cessation study.  Addictive Behaviors, 20, 299-320.  PMID: 7653313.

 Galavotti C., Cabral R.J., Lanksy A., Grimley D.., Riley G.E. & Prochaska J.O.  (1995).  Validation of measures of condom and other contraceptive use among women high risk for HIV infection and unintended pregnancy.  Health Psychology, 14(6), 570-578.  PMID: 8565932.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1994).  Strong and weak principles for progressing from Precontemplation to Action based on twelve problem behaviors.  Health Psychology, 13, 47-51.  PMID: 8168471.

 Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C.A., Harlow, L., Rossi, J.S., & Velicer, W.F. (1994).  The Transtheoretical Model of Change and HIV Prevention:  A Review.  Health Education Quarterly, 21(4), 471-486.  PMID: 7843978.

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Rossi, J.S., Goldstein, M.G., Marcus, B.H., Rakowski, W., Fiore, C., Harlow, L., Redding, C.A., Rosenbloom, D., Rossi, S.R.  (1994). Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors.  Health Psychology, 13, 39-46.  PMID: 8168470.

Snow, M.G., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S. (1994). Processes of change in alcoholics anonymous:  Issues in maintaining long-term sobriety.  Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55(3), 362-371. PMID: 8022185.

Laforge, R.G., Greene, G.W., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1994).  Psychosocial factors influencing low fruit and vegetable consumption.  Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 361-374.  PMID: 7966258.

Pallonen, U.E., Leskinen, L., Prochaska, J.O., Willey, C.J., Kaariainen, R., & Salonen, J.T.  (1994).  A 2-year self-help smoking cessation manual intervention among middle-aged Finnish men:  An application of the Transtheoretical Model.  Preventive Medicine, 23, 507-514.  PMID: 7971879.

Green, G.W., Rossi, S.R., Reed, G.R., Willey, C., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1994).  Stages of change for reducing dietary fat to 30% of energy or less.  Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 4, 1105-1110.

Rossi, S.R., Rossi, J.S., Rossi-DelPrete, L.M., Prochaska, J.O., Banspach, S.W. & Carleton, R.A.  (1994).  A processes of change model for weight control for participants in community-based weight loss programs.  The International Journal of the Addictions, 29, 161-177.  PMID: 8144273.

 Prochaska, J.O. (1993). Helping patients at every stage of change. Behavioral Approaches to Addiction,1, 2-7.

Prochaska J.O.  (1993).  Working in harmony with how people quit smoking naturally.  Rhode Island Medicine, 76(10), 493-495.  PMID: 8251674.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1993)  I think we can.  Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 24(3), 250-251.

Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., Velicer, W.F., & Rossi, J.S.  (1993).  Standardized, individualized, interactive and personalized self-help programs for smoking cessation.  Health Psychology, 12, 399-405.  PMID: 8223364.

Becker, D.M., Novotny, T.E., Orleans, C.T., Prochaska, J. O., Windsor, R., Ockene, J.K., Berman, B., & Henningfield, J. (1993).  Setting the policy, education, and research agenda to reduce tobacco use. Circulation, 88, 1381-1386.

Grimley, D.M., Riley, G.E., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1993). Condom use assertiveness and the stages of change with main and other partners.  Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 1, 152-173.

Grimley, D.M., Riley, G.E., Bellis, J.M., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1993).  Assessing the stages of change and decision making for contraceptive use for the prevention of pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Health Education Quarterly,20, 455-470.  PMID: 8307766.

Norcross, J.C., Prochaska, J.O., & Farber, J.A.  (1993).  Psychologists conducting psychotherapy:  New findings and historical comparisons on the psychotherapy division membership.  Psychotherapy, 30, 692-697.

Ruggiero, L. & Prochaska, J.O.  (1993). Application of the Transtheoretical Model to diabetes management.  Invited Co-editors, Diabetes Spectrum, From Research to Practice, 6.

Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Bellis, J.M., DiClemente, C.C., Rossi, J.S., Fava, J.L., & Steiger, J.H.  (1993).  An expert system intervention for smoking cessation.  Addictive Behaviors, 18, 269-290.  PMID: 8342440

Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., & Norcross, J.C. (1992). In search of how people change:  Applications to the addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102-1114.  PMID: 1329589.

Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C. C., Velicer, W.F., & Rossi, J.S.  (1992).  Criticisms and concerns of the transtheoretical model in light of recent research.  British Journal of Addiction, 87, 825-828.  PMID: 1525523.

Prochaska, J.O., Norcross, J.C., Fowler, J.L., Follick, M.J., & Abrams, D.B.  (1992).  Attendance and outcome in a work site weight control program:  Processes and stages of change as process and predictor variables.  Addictive Behaviors, 17, 35-45.  PMID: 1595424.

Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C.A., Harlow, L.L., Rossi, J.S., & Velicer, W.F. (1992). The transtheoretical model of change and HIV prevention:  A review. Health Education Quarterly.  PMID: 7843978.

Rakowski, W., Dube, C., Marcus, B.H., Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., & Abrams, D.B. (1992). Assessing elements of women’s decision about mammography. Health Psychology, 11, 111-118.  PMID: 1582379.

Snow, M.G., Prochaska, J.O., & Rossi, J.S. (1992). Stages of change for smoking cessation among former problem drinkers: A cross-sectional analysis.  Journal of Substance Abuse, 4, 107-116.  PMID: 1504636.

Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., & Snow, M.  (1992). Assessing outcome in smoking cessation studies.  Psychological Bulletin, 111, 23-41.  PMID: 1539088.

Pallonen, U.E., Fava, J.L., Salonen, J.T., & Prochaska, J.O. (1992). Readiness for smoking change among middle-aged Finnish men.  Addictive Behaviors, 17, 415-423.  PMID: 1442236.

Kristeller, J.L., Rossi, J.S., Ockene, J.K., Goldberg, R., & Prochaska, J.O. (1992). Processes of change in smoking cessation: A cross-validation study in cardiac patients.  Journal of Substance Abuse, 4, 263-276.  PMID: 1458044.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1991).  Prescribing to the stage and level of phobic patients.  Psychotherapy, 28, 463-468.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1991).  Assessing how people change.  Cancer, 67, 805-807.  PMID: 1986849.

Prochaska, J.O., & Goldstein, M. (1991).  The process of smoking cessation: Implications for clinicians. Clinics in Chest Medicine, 12 (4), 727-735.  PMID: 1747990.

Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., & Wilcox, N.  (1991).  Change processes and psychotherapy outcome in integrative case research.  Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 1, 103-120.

 Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Guadagnoli, E., Rossi, J.S., & DiClemente, C.C.  (1991).  Patterns of change:  A dynamic typology applied to smoking cessation.  Multivariate Behavioral Research, 26, 83-107.

DiClemente, C.C., Prochaska, J.O., Fairhurst, S., Velicer, W.F., Velasquez, M., & Rossi, J.S. (1991).  The process of smoking cessation: An analysis of precontemplation, contemplation and preparation stages of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 259-304.  PMID: 2030191.

Norcross, J.C., Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C.  (1991).  Helping clients stick to it.  IDEA Today, 9, 23-30.

Norcross, J.C., Prochaska, J.O., & Hambrect, M.  (1991).  Treating ourselves vs. treating our clients:  A replication with alcohol abuse.  Journal of Substance Abuse, 3, 123-129.  PMID: 1821271.

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., DiClemente, C.C., Guadagnoli, E., & Rossi, J.  (1990).  Patterns of change:  Dynamic typology applied to smoking cessation.  Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 587-611.

Fitzgerald, T.E., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1990).  Nonprogressing profiles in smoking cessation:  What keeps people refractory to self-change?  Journal of Substance Abuse, 2, 87-105.  PMID: 2136106.

Velicer, W.F., DiClemente, C.C., Rossi, J.S., & Prochaska, J.O. (1990). Relapse situations and self‑efficacy: An integrative model.  Addictive Behaviors, 15, 271-283.  PMID: 2378287.

Norcross, J.C., Prochaska, J.O., & Gallagher, K.  (1989).  Clinical psychologists in the 1980’s: I. Demographics, affiliations, and satisfications. The Clinical Psychologist, 42,29-39.

Norcross, J.C., Prochaska, J.O., & Gallagher, K.  (1989).  Clinical psychologists in the 1980’s:  II.  Theory, Research and Practice.  The Clinical Psychologist, 42, 45-53.

Cohen, S., Lichtenstein, E., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., Gritz, E.R., Carr, C.R., Orleans, C.T., Schoenbach, V.J., Biener, L., Abrams, D., DiClemente, C., Curry, S., Marlatt, G.A., Cummings, K.M., Emont, S.L., Giovino, G., & Ossip‑Klein, D. (1989). Debunking myths about self‑quitting: Evidence from ten prospective studies of persons quitting smoking by themselves. American Psychologist, 44, 1355-1365.

Mahoney, M.J., Norcross, J.C., Prochaska, J.O., & Messor, C.D.  (1989).  Psychological development and optimal psychotherapy:  Converging perspectives among clinical psychologists.  Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 8, 251-263.

McConnaughy, E.A., DiClemente, C.C.. Prochaska, J.O., & Velicer, W.F.  (1989).  Stages of change in psychotherapy:  A follow-up report.  Psychotherapy, 26, 494-503.

Norcross, J.C., Gallagher, K.M., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1989).  The Boulder and/or Vail Model:  Training preferences of clinical psychologists.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 822-828.  PMID: 2808741.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1988).  Commentary:  Six authors in search of an owner.  Journal of Inetrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 7, 422-426.

Beitman, B.T. &  Prochaska, J.O.  (1988).  Psychotherapy Integration:  A dialogue.  Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 7, 249-259.

Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., Halgin, R., Robertson, M., Bentler, L., Clarkin, G., Frances, A., & Suedfeld, P.  (1988).  Wie sollte eine Ausbildung zum integrativen/eklektizistischen Psychotherapeuten aussehen?  Report Psychologie, 42, 12‑20.

 Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., DiClemente, C.C., & Fava, J.L.  (1988).  Measuring processes of change:  Applications to the cessation of smoking.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 520‑528.  PMID: 3198809.

Medeiros, M., & Prochaska, J.O. (1988). Coping strategies that psychotherapists use in working with stressful clients. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19, 112-114.

Norcross, J., and Prochaska, J.O.  (1988).  A study of eclectic (and integrative) views revisited.  Professional Psychology:  Research and Practice, 19, 170-174.

Rossi, J.S., Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C.  (1988).  Processes of change in heavy and light smokers.  Journal of Substance Abuse, 1, 1‑9.  PMID: 2485274.

Prochaska, J. O. (1987).  Reflections on psychotherapy in Poland.  Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 6, 95‑97.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1987).  Training integrative marital therapists.  Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy.

Stern, R., Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., and Elder, J.   (1987).  Stages of adolescent cigarette smoking acquisition:  Measurement and sample profiles.  Addictive Behavior, 12, 319‑329.  PMID: 3687516.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1986).  Patterns of change in smoking behavior.   Health Psychology, 5, 97‑98.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1986).  Integrating the integrative dimensions.  International Journal of Eclectic Psychotherapy, 5, 269‑274.

Prochaska, J.O., & Norcross, J.C.  (1986).  Exploring paths toward integration:  10 ways not to get there.  International Journal of Eclectic Psychotherapy, 5, 136‑139.

 Prochaska, J.O., Norcross, J.C., and Nash, J.  (1986).  Independent psychological practice:  A national survey of full‑time practitioners.  Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 4, 57‑66.

Norcross, J.C., Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C.  (1986).  Self‑change of psychological distress:  Laypersons’ vs. psychologists’ coping strategies.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 834‑840.  PMID: 3760221.

Norcross, J.C., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1986).  Psychotherapist Heal Thyself:  I.  The psychological distress and self‑change of psychologists, counselors, and laypersons.  Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research, and Practice, 23, 102‑114.

Norcross, J.C., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1986).  Psychotherapist Heal Thyself:  II.  The self‑initiated and therapy‑facilitated change of psychological distress.  Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research, and Practice, 23, 345‑356.

Wilcox, N., Rossi, J.S., and Prochaska, J.O.  (1986).  Rates and responses of distressed women to phone survey screening and recruitment.  Psychological Reports, 58, 891‑898.  PMID: 3487808.

Lichtenstein, E., Weiss, S., Hitchcock, J., Levieton, L., O’Connell, K., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1986).  Patterns of smoking relapse.  Health Psychology, 5, 29‑40.  PMID: 3582322.

 Prochaska, J.O., & Norcross, J.C. (1986). Exploring paths toward integration:  Ten ways not to get there.  Journal of Inetrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 5, 136-139.  Reprinted in Report Psychologie.

Norcross, J., Beutler, L., Clarkin, J., DiClemente, C., Halgin, R., Frances, A., Prochaska, J.O., Robertson, M., and Swedfeld, P.  (1986).  Training integrative/eclectic psychotherapists.  International Journal of Eclectic Psychotherapy, 5, 71‑94.

DiClemente, C.C., Prochaska, J.O., and Gibertini, M.  (1985).  Self‑efficacy and the stages of self change of smoking.  Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 181‑200.

Norcross, J.C., Prochaska, J.O. and Hambrecht, M.  (1985).  The Levels of Attribution and Change (LAC) Scale:  Development and measurement.  Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 631‑649.

Prochaska, Janice M., Prochaska, J.O., and eight children from the South Kingstown Elementary schools.  (1985).  Children’s views of the causes and cures for sibling rivalry.  Child Welfare, 44, 427‑433.

Wilcox, N., Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., and DiClemente, C.C.  (1985).  Subject characteristics as predictors of self‑change of smoking.  Addictive Behaviors, 10, 395‑406.   PMID: 4091073.

Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., Velicer, W.F,, Ginpil, S., & Norcross, J.C.  (1985).  Predicting change in smoking status for self‑changers.  Addictive Behaviors, 10, 407‑412.  PMID: 4091072.

Norcross, J.C., Nash, J. and Prochaska, J.O.  (1985).  Psychologists in part‑time independent practice:  Description and comparison.  Professional Psychology:  Research and Practice, 16, 565‑575.

Velicer, W.F.,  DiClemente, C.C., Prochaska, J.O., and Brandenburg, N.  (1985).  A decisional balance measure for assessing and predicting smoking status.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1279‑1289.  PMID: 3998990.

Hefner, C. & Prochaska, J.O.  (1984).  Conjoint versus concurrent marital therapy.  Social Work, 29, 287‑294.

Norcross, J.C, & Prochaska, J.O.  (1984).  APA and the independent practitioner.  APA Monitor, 15 (5), 5.

Norcross, J.C. & Prochaska, J.O.  (1984).  Where do behavior therapists take their troubles?  Behavior Therapist, 7, 26‑27.

Norcross, J.C., Prochaska, J.O., Guadagnoli, E., & DiClemente, C.C.  (1984).  Factor structure of the levels of attribution and change (LAC) scale in samples of psychotherapists and smokers.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 519‑528.  PMID: 6725574.

Nash, J., Norcross, J.C. & Prochaska, J.O.  (1984).  Satisfactions and stresses of independent practice.  Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 2, 39‑48.

Norcross, J.C., Guadagnoli, E., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1984).  Factor structure of the Profile of Mood States (POMS).  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 1270‑1277.  PMID: 6490926.

Prochaska, J.O. (1983).  Self Changers vs. Therapy Changers vs.Schachter American Psychologist, 38, 853‑854.

Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C.  (1983).  Stages and processes of self‑change of smoking:  Toward an integrative model of change.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 390‑395.  PMID: 6863699.

Prochaska, J.O. & Norcross, J.C.  (1983).  Psychotherapists’ perspectives on treating themselves and their clients for psychic distress.  Professional Psychology:  Research and Practice, 14, 642‑655.

 Prochaska, J.O. & Norcross, J.C.  (1983).  Contemporary psychotherapists:  A national survey of characteristics, practices, orientations and attitudes.  Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research and Practice, 20, 161‑173.

Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M.  (1983).  Teaching psychology to gifted children at the elementary school level.  Teaching Psychology, 10, 82‑84.

Norcross, J.C. & Prochaska, J.O.  (1983).  Clinicians theoretical orientations:  Selection, utilization and efficacy.  Professional  Psychology, 14, 197‑208.

Norcross, J.C. & Prochaska, J.O.  (1983).  Psychotherapists in independent practice:  Some findings and issues.  Professional Psychology:  Research and Practice, 14, 869‑881.

Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C. (1982).  Transtheoretical Therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change.  Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research and Practice, 19, 276‑288.

Prochaska, J.O. & Lapsanski, D.  (1982).  Life changes and smoking cessation and maintenance:  A preliminary report.  Psychological Reports, 50, 609‑610.  PMID: 7089145.

 Prochaska, J.O. & Norcross, J.C.  (1982).  The Future of Psychotherapy:  A Delphi Poll.  Professional Psychology, 12, 620‑627.

Prochaska, J.O., Crimi, P., Lapsanski, D., Martel, L., & Reid, P.  (1982).  Self‑change processes, self‑efficacy and self‑concept in relapse and maintenance of smoking cessation.  Psychological Reports, 51, 983‑990.  PMID: 7163454.

DiClemente, C.C. & Prochaska, J.O. (1982).  Self‑change and therapy change of smoking behavior:  a comparison of processes of change of cessation and maintenance.  Addictive Behaviors, 7, 133‑142.  PMID: 7102444.

Norcross, J.C. & Prochaska, J.O.  (Winter, 1982).  A national survey of clinical psychologists:  Characteristics and activities.  The Clinical Psychologist, 35, l‑8.

Norcross, J.C. & Prochaska, J.O.  (Spring, 1982). A national survey of clinical psychologists:  Affiliations and Orientations.  The Clinical Psychologist, 35, l‑8.

Norcross, J.C. & Prochaska, J.O.  (Summer, 1982).  A national survey of clinical psychologists:  Views on training, career choice, and APA.  The Clinical Psychologist, 35, l‑8.

Prochaska, J.M. & Prochaska, J.O.  (1982).  Dual Career Families:  Challenges For Spouses and Agencies.  Social Casework, 63, 118‑120.

McConnaughy, E.A., Prochaska, J.O., & Velicer, W.F.  (1982).  Stages of change in psychotherapy:  Measurement and sample profiles.  Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research and Practice, 20, 358‑357.

 Prochaska, J.O.  (1980).  Experiencing a humanistic theory of psychology.  Review of Experiencing:  A humanistic theory of psychology and psychiatry by Alvin Mahrer.  Contemporary Psychology, 28, 164‑166.

 Prochaska, J.O. & Prochaska, J.M. (1979).  Twentieth Century trends in marriage and marital therapy.  Fokus pa Familien;  Tidsskrift for Familiebchandling, 2, 44‑53.

Small, A., Gross, R., Biller, H., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1977).  Congruency of sex‑role identification in normal and disturbed adolescent males.  Psychological Reports, 41, 39‑46.  PMID: 910003.

Small, A., Biller, H.D., & Prochaska, J.O.  (1975).  Sex‑role development and parental expectations among disturbed adolescent males.  Adolescence, 10, 609‑615.  PMID: 1199862.

Prochaska, J.O., Smith, Nelson, Marzilli, Robert, Colby, Jack & Donovan, William.  (1974).  Remote‑control aversive stimulation in the control of head‑banging in a retarded child.  Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 5, 285‑289.

Spring, D., Prochaska, J.O., & Smith, N.  (1974).  Fear reduction in rats through avoidance blocking.  Behavior Research and Therapy, 12, 29‑34.  PMID: 4816228.

Prochaska, J.O., & Marzilli, R.  (1973).  Adaptation of Masters and Johnson’s therapy for sexual problems to an out‑patient clinic.  Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research and Practice, 10, 294‑297.

Schiff, R., Smith, N., and Prochaska, J.O.  (1972).  Extinction of avoidance in rats as a function of duration and number of blocked trials.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 81, 356‑359.  PMID: 4673479.

Prochaska, J.O.  (1971).  Symptom and dynamic cues in the implosive treatment of test anxiety.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 133‑142.  PMID: 5550425.

 

Patricia H. Castle, PH.D.

Vice President of Data Science

pcastle@prochange.com

Dr. Castle is responsible for the implementation of advanced statistical methods to meet the research objectives of partners and policymakers. She provides technical leadership and expert guidance on projects relating to research design, data management, statistical methodology, and program evaluation. Dr. Castle works in collaboration with principal investigators in the development, implementation, and testing of federally-funded randomized trials focusing on behavior change.

Dr. Castle earned her Ph.D. in Psychology at the University of Rhode Island with specialization in behavioral science, quantitative methods, and clinical psychology. She has received the URI Research Ethics Fellowship, the Peter Merenda Prize in Statistics and Research Methodology, and multiple Citation Awards from the Society of Behavioral Medicine. Her research focuses on multiple health behavior change and quantitative methods. She is particularly interested in cross-sectional and longitudinal meta-analytic techniques, measurement development, and program evaluation for interventions based on the Transtheoretical Model.

Our Building’s History

History of the Hazard Mill on the Saugatucket River in the Village of Peace Dale in South Kingstown, Rhode Island

Hazard Mill

The Hazard family settled in Rhode Island in 1639 in towns surrounding what is known today as Portsmouth, RI. The next few generations of the family moved across the bay into South Kingstown where they owned large plantations with sheep.

In 1799 the Hazard’s home weaving moved from farmhouse to mill when Rowland Hazard purchased half interest in the Peace Dale mill from Benjamin Rodman. His involvement in the business grew and by 1812 he had purchased the mill privilege outright. He invested money in machinery including primitive water power looms for carding wool and by 1815 he ran a small fully operated manufacturing operation that is said to be one of the first such textile plants in America. In 1819, his sons Isaac Peace Hazard and Rowland G. Hazard took over mill operations. The purchase of this mill was the beginning of the Hazard family empire, which dominated village life for more than a century.

In 1823, Peace Dale had about 30 inhabitants and was growing slowly. In the mid 1840’s the original mill burned down and was replaced by a building made out of a fireproof stone with additions added in the following years. In 1848 the Peace Dale Manufacturing Company was incorporated and led by Isaac and Rowland G. who installed a power spinning jack and began manufacturing kersey cloth and linsey-woolsey. This was a major turning point for the small village of Peace Dale. In 1858, many new buildings began to be erected due to Rowland G. Hazard’s funding and design. The smaller buildings were used for many mill activities including wool storage, a workers’ dining room, even a chemical laboratory. The additional buildings also included a meeting house, a church, and most importantly an office building which included a post office, a village store, and a mill workers’quarters. Over the next several decades Rowland G. Hazard influenced the construction and design of numerous additional buildings, accounting for more than half of what is built today in Peace Dale.

During the Civil War, the mill had a contract to make 50,000 army blankets. President Lincoln received one of the Peace Dale shawls. After the war, a new 3-story weaving building was constructed that covered a half acre. In this building they manufactured serge* and cheviots**. Peace Dale cloth won first prize at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. Its serges won first prize at the Chicago World’s Fair, as well as a gold medal in Paris in 1901. By 1900 the Peace Dale population was 1500 and 40% of that population worked in the mill. During World War I, women asked the mill to make knitting yarn so they could knit items for the soldiers. The mill manufactured khaki colored cloth for the army as well. One thousand workers were said to be employed in the mill during WWI.

In 1918, Rowland Hazard III, son of Rowland G. Hazard, sold the mill to M.T. Stevens and Sons who operated it until 1947. The two-story stone facade and bell tower are all that remain of the stone mill built by the Hazards in the mid-1840’s.

Interesting fact about Rowland Hazard III: Rowland Hazard III struggled with alcoholism, which led to his direct involvement in what is today Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). His own efforts at recovery were markedly influenced by his consultation with psychologist Carl Jung.

* Serge is a type of twill fabric that has diagonal lines or ridges on both sides, made with a two-up, two-down weave. The worsted variety is used in making military uniforms, suits, great coats and trench coats.

** Cheviot, woollen fabric made originally from the wool of Cheviot sheep and now also made from other types of wool or from blends of wool and man-made fibers in plain or various twill weaves.

Integrating Patient Health and Population Health Using the Transtheoretical Model

Traditional patient health paradigms for treatment of health behaviors are designed for individual patients who are motivated or prepared to seek wellness programs. However, programs that passively wait and only react to patients who call or come for help end up serving small percentages of at-risk populations. There reactive programs must be complemented by innovative paradigms to reach out to the large percentages of populations who have not been adequately studied or served in the past. For solutions to match the growing demand for health behavior change programs, they will need to combine more inclusive science with more inclusive services (matched to the needs of people in each stage of change) to produce more inclusive care that can have much greater population impacts on preventing and managing chronic conditions.
This is our approach to integrating patient health and population health.

Patient Health Complemented by Population Health
  1. Individual Patient
  2. Action-Oriented
  3. Reactive Recruitment
  4. Efficacy
  5. Clinic-Based
  6. Clinician-Based
  7. Single Behavior
  8. Modular
  9. Disease Prevention & Management
  10. Fragmented
  1. Entire Populations
  2. Stage-Based
  3. Proactive Outreach
  4. Impact
  5. Home, Work Or School-Based
  6. Computer-Based
  7. Multiple Behaviors
  8. Coaction
  9. Well-Being
  10. Integrated

Multiple Behavior Change

More impact on health and well-being


Pro-Change has long been a leader in providing innovative multiple behavior change programs, which have the potential to offer significantly more impact on health and well-being.

Beginning with the development of the Managing Cholesterol Program, Pro-Change recognized how crucial it was that the fully tailored adherence program be paired with interventions for the other lifestyle behaviors that are key in managing high cholesterol. The results of the initial Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) funded effectiveness trial exemplify the potential for coaction of behavior change when fully tailored interventions are paired with stage-matched interventions. The treatment group received a full expert system for medication adherence and stage-matched guidance for exercise and dietary fat. The treatment group was 50% more likely than the control to reach Action or Maintenance for all behaviors (Johnson et al., 2006).

The results of Pro-Change’s SBIR-funded, population-based, weight management program add to the support for effective multiple behavior TTM-based interventions. The randomized trial, which included 1277 overweight or obese adults, found significant treatment effects for healthy eating, exercise, managing emotional distress, and untreated fruit and vegetable intake. Participants in the intervention condition who received diet and physical activity interventions lost significantly more weight at follow-up than usual care participants and were significantly more likely to lose at least 5% of their baseline weight.


Youth


Exploring innovative options


 

The success of multiple behavior change is also clear in younger samples. TTM-based multimedia programs for bullying prevention have had similar success in diverse populations (Evers et al., 2007). The trials included 12 elementary schools (40.6% of free lunch eligible); 12 middle schools (48.6% eligible); and 13 high schools (42.3% eligible). The programs had significant effects on three roles related to bullying (i.e., bully, bystander, victim). Overall, the odds ratios indicated that intervention groups were 3-4 times as likely as the control group to progress to Action/Maintenance (i.e., not participate in any role related to bullying) (Van Marter et al., 2006; Evers et al., 2007).

Our multiple behavior change obesity prevention program, Health in Motion, targeted three energy balance areas: increasing physical activity, eating more fruits and vegetables, and reducing TV time. (Mauriello et al., 2010; Driskell, et al., 2008; Velicer et al., 2013). The program was tested in two separate randomized clinical trials with nearly 6,000 adolescents (middle and high school students). Both trials (tested by separate groups and funded by different Institutes) demonstrated that Health in Motion is effective at increasing the targeting energy balance behaviors, reducing overall number of behavioral risks, reducing relapse, and promotion of multiple behavior changes. The middle school trial is noteworthy in two important ways. The follow-up assessment was extended to 36 months, and strong effects of Health in motion influencing energy balance behaviors persisted. Additionally, in that trial Health in Motion was used as a control program for testing a substance use prevention program (decreasing smoking and alcohol). Despite no direct treatment, the energy balance group showed significantly lower smoking and alcohol use than the substance use prevention program. It can be hypothesized that the positive healthy lifestyle messages had a great impact at preventing substance use among adolescents than direct messages against those behaviors.

Within the LifeStyle Management Suite, users participate in a multiple behavior change program, such as Managing High Blood Pressure, or participate in two or more single behavior programs, such as smoking, stress, and exercise.

Pro-Change continues to explore innovative options for maximizing the effectiveness of multiple behavior change interventions while minimizing response burden. Ongoing trials on college student health and healthy pregnancy will provide important data on the utility of optimal tailoring.

Citations

Driskell, M.M., Dyment S.J., Mauriello, L.M., Castle, P.H., & Sherman, K.J. (2008). Relationships among multiple behaviors for childhood and adolescent obesity prevention. Preventive Medicine, 46, 209-315. abstract

Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.O., Van Marter, D.F., Johnson, J.L., & Prochaska, J.M. (2007). Transtheoretical-Based Bullying Prevention Effectiveness Trials In Middle Schools and High Schools. Educational Research, 49(4), 397-414.

Johnson, S.S., Driskell, M.M., Johnson, J., Dyment, S., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, J.M., Bourne, L. (2006). Transtheoretical Model intervention for adherence to lipid-lowering drugs. Disease Management, 9(2), 102-114.

Johnson, S.S, Paiva, A.L. Cummins, C., Johnson, J.L. Dyment, S., Wright, J.A., Prochaska, J.O., Prochaska, JM., Sherman, K. (2008). Evidence-based Multiple Behavior Intervention for Weight Management: Effectiveness on a Population Basis. Preventive Medicine, 46, 238-246.

Mauriello, L. M., Ciavatta, M. M., Paiva, A. L., Sherman, K. J., Castle, P. H., Johnson, J. L., Prochaska, J. M. (2010). Results of a Multi-Media Multiple Behavior Obesity Prevention Program for Adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 51, 451-456.

Van Marter, D., Evers, K., Johnson, J., Dyment, S., Prochaska, J.M., and Prochaska, J.O. (November, 2006). Bullying prevention across the school years: effectiveness trial outcomes of Transtheoretical model-based programs for elementary, middle and high school students. Poster presented at the 134th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association: Boston, MA.

Velicer WF, Redding CA, Paiva AL, Mauriello LM, Blissmer B, Oatley K, Meier KS, Babbin SF, McGee H, Prochaska JO, Burditt C, Fernandez AC. (2013). Multiple risk factor intervention to prevent substance abuse and increase energy balance behaviors in middle school students. Translational Behavior Medicine, 3, 82-93.

Additional Reading

Prochaska JO. Multiple health behavior research represents the future of preventive medicine. Prev Med. 2008;46:281-285.

Jones, H., Edwards, L., Vallis, T. M., Ruggiero, L., Rossi, S. R., Rossi, J. S. et al. (2003). Diabetes Stages of Change (DiSC) Study. Changes in diabetes self-care behaviors make a difference in glycemic control: The diabetes stages of change (DiSC) study. Diabetes Care, 26, 732-737.

Prochaska, J. O., Butterworth, S., Redding, C. A., Burden, V., Perrin, N., Leo, M. et al. (2008). Initial efficacy of MI, TTM tailoring and HRI’s with multiple behaviors for employee health promotion. Preventive Medicine, 46, 226-231.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Redding, C., Rossi, J. S., Goldstein, M., DePue, J. et al. (2005a). Stage-based expert systems to guide a population of primary care patients to quit smoking, eat healthier, prevent skin cancer, and receive regular mammograms. Preventive Medicine, 41, 406-416.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Rossi, J. S., & Goldstein, M. G. (2004). Stage effects in 70 comparisons in a population cessation trial. Addictive Behaviors.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Rossi, J. S., Redding, C. A., Greene, G. W., Rossi, S. R. et al. (2004). Multiple Risk Expert Systems Interventions: Impact of Simultaneous Stage-Matched Expert System Interventions for Smoking, High-Fat Diet, and Sun Exposure in a Population of Parents. Health Psychology, 23, 503-516.